Statistical information Romania 1996Romania

Map of Romania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Romania in the World
Romania in the World



Romania - Introduction 1996
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU.


Romania - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 237,500 km²
Land: 230,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: Total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: Central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources:
Petroleum (reserves declining)
Timber
Natural gas
Coal
Iron ore
Salt

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 19%
Forests and woodland: 28%
Other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Romania - People 1996
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Population: 21,657,162 (July 1996 est.)
Growth rate:
-1.21% (1996 est.)
0.09% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Romanian(s)
Adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups:
Romanian 89.1%
Hungarian 8.9%
German 0.4%
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%


Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Religions:
Romanian Orthodox 70%
Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%
Unaffiliated 18%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20% (male 2,180,023; female 2,088,496)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,261,160; female 7,393,531)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,138,583; female 1,595,369) (July 1996 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-1.21% (1996 est.)
0.09% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
9.77 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
13.71 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
12.27 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-9.6 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-2.88 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Current issues Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:23.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
18.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.42 years (1996 est.), 72.24 years (1995 est.)
Male: 65.51 years (1996 est.), 69.31 years (1995 est.)
Female: 73.57 years (1996 est.), 75.35 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1992)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 95%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Romania - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Romania
Local long form: none
Local short form: Romania

Government type: Republic

Capital: Bucuresti (Bucharest)

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular_judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu; Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: Former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989); election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results_Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
Head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament Senate (Senat):Elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996; results_PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%; seats_(143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2 other 1 House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor):Elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996; results_PSDR 34.0%, CDR 16,4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats_(341 total) PSDR 116, CDR 56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5, other 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Romania - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Romania, one of the poorer East European countries moving away from the command economy, posted its third straight year of growth in 1995. Bucharest also was successful in reducing its inflation rate to 25%_less than half the 1994 rate_because of tight monetary and fiscal policies, while unemployment fell to 9% as the private sector hired more workers. Despite these successes on the economic front, Romania has lagged much of Central and Eastern Europe in the restructuring process. The private sector accounted for only 40% of GDP in 1995 with over 90% of industry remaining in state hands. Privatization is slated to pick up in 1996, but Bucharest faces other economic problems that could stall recovery, including a growing budget deficit, limited reform of the agricultural and energy sectors, and accumulated decay of the infrastructure.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
5.4% (1995 est.)
3.4% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn producer; other products_sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Industries:
Mining
Timber
Construction materials
Metallurgy
Chemicals
Machine building
Food processing
Petroleum production and refining


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 3.3% (1994 est.), -1% (1993 est.), accounts for 45% of GDP

Labor force: 11.3 million (1992)
By occupation Industry: 38%
By occupation Agriculture: 28%
By occupation Other: 34% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.9% (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $5.35 billion
Expenditures: $6.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodities:
Textiles and Footwear 23.8%
Metals and metal products 17.3%
Mineral products 11.6%
Machinery and transport equipment 14.8%
Chemicals 7.9%
Food and Agricultural goods 6.5%
Other 18.1% (1994)

Partners:
Developing Countries 30.3%
East and Central Europe 18.4%
rus');">Russia 3.4%
OECD 57.9% (EU 50%, U.S. 3.1%) (1994)


Imports: total value:$7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodities:
Fuels and Minerals 26.8%
Machinery and Transport equipment 25.1%
Textiles and footwear 12.3%
Food and Agricultural goods 9.3%
Chemicals 7.9%
Other 18.6% (1994)

Partners:
OECD 60% (EU 44.5%, U.S. 6.5%)
East and Central Europe 6.1%
Developing countries 16.6%
Russia 13.8%
Other 3.5% (1993)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$4.7 billion (1995)
$4.4 billion (1994)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lei (L) per US$1_2,599.24 (January 1996), 2,033.28 (1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990)


Romania - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 50.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,076 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Romania - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: About 2.3 million telephones (1990 est.); 99 telephones/1000 persons; 89% of phone network is automatic; poor service; cable and open wire
Local: NA
Intercity: trunk network is microwave; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990)
International: 1 INTELSAT earth station; new digital international direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993 est.)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Romania - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Romania - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 156
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 14
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 108

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 14

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 108

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Merchant marine
Total: 233 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,425,729 GRT/3,641,741 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 39, cargo 166, container 2, oil tanker 13, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9
Note: In addition, Romania owns 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,207,388 DWT that operate under Liberian, Maltese, Cypriot, and Bahamian registry

Ports and terminals


Romania - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route


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