Statistical information Slovakia 1996Slovakia

Map of Slovakia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Slovakia in the World
Slovakia in the World


Slovakia - Introduction 1996
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Background: After centuries under foreign rule, mainly by Hungary, the Slovaks joined with their neighbors to form the new nation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989, and Czechoslovakia once more was an independent country turning toward the West. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia has experienced more difficulty than the Czech Republic in developing a modern market economy.

Slovakia - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 48,845 km²
Land: 48,800 km²
Comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: Total 1,355 km, Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
Highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m


Natural resources:
Brown coal and lignite
Small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore

Land use

Land use
Arable land: NA
Permanent crops: NA
Permanent pastures: NA
Forests and woodland: NA
Other: NA

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Slovakia - People 1996
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5,374,362 (July 1996 est.)
5,432,383 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.34% (1996 est.)
0.54% (1995 est.)

Noun: Slovak(s)
Adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups:
Slovak 85.7%
Hungarian 10.7%
Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or more)
Czech 1%
Ruthenian 0.3%
Ukrainian 0.3%
German 0.1%
Polish 0.1%
Other 0.3%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Roman Catholic 60.3%
Atheist 9.7%
Protestant 8.4%
Orthodox 4.1%
Other 17.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
22% (male 605,379; female 579,232) (July 1996 est.)
23% (male 638,346; female 609,795) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
67% (male 1,777,100; female 1,812,555) (July 1996 est.)
66% (male 1,778,712; female 1,807,312) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
11% (male 234,377; female 365,719) (July 1996 est.)
11% (male 233,608; female 364,610) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.34% (1996 est.)
0.54% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
12.62 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
14.51 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
9.35 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.12 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0.12 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:10.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
10 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.10 years (1996 est.), 73.24 years (1995 est.)
Male: 69.01 years (1996 est.), 69.15 years (1995 est.)
Female: 77.21 years (1996 est.), 77.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: definition:NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Slovakia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Slovak Republic
Conventional short form: Slovakia
Local long form: Slovenska Republika
Local short form: Slovensko

Government type: Parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 4 departments (kraje, singular_kraj) Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, August 29 (1944)

Constitution: Ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: Civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993); election last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results_Michal KOVAC elected by the National Parliament
Head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since 12 December 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Parliament (Narodni Rada):Elections last held 30 September-1 October 1994 (next to be held by October 1998; results_HZDS 35%, SDL 10.4%, Hungarian coalition (Hungarian Christian Democrats, Hungarian Civic Party, Coexistence) 10.2%, KDH 10.1%, DU 8.6%, ZRS 7.3%, SNS 5.4%; seats_(150 total) governing coalition 83 (HZDS 61, ZRS 13, SNS 9), opposition 67 (SDL 18, Hungarian coalition 17, KDH 17, DU 15)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Parliament

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Slovakia: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Slovakia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Since its separation from the Czech Republic on 1 January 1993, Slovakia has continued the difficult transformation from a centrally controlled economy to a modern market-oriented economy. Macroeconomic performance improved steadily in 1994 and 1995_with 4.8% and 6% growth, respectively. But privatization progressed only in fits and starts. Strong export performance boosted growth in both years, with consumption and investment rebounding. Unemployment fell to 12.8% in November 1995, the lowest level since mid-1993, and inflation dropped from 26% in 1993 to 7.5% in 1995. The federal government deficit fell from 7% of GDP in 1993 to less than 2% in 1994-95, as growth boosted revenues. Positive international financial performance led Standard & Poor's to raise its rating of the National Bank of Slovakia's foreign currency debt to just one step below investment grade. The trade and current accounts are both in surplus, and foreign currency reserves held by the central bank have climbed to $3.5 billion. Foreign debt of $4.6 billion_about the same as Romania's_is the lowest in Central and Eastern Europe and the second lowest per capita. Bratislava made the Slovak crown convertible for current account transactions on 1 October 1995. Slovakia continued to have difficulty attracting foreign investment, however, because of perceived political uncertainty and vacillations in privatization policy. The government as well as the OECD projects 5% growth in 1997.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6% (1995 est.)
4.3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products

Metal and metal products
Food and beverages
Electricity, gas, and water
Coking, oil production, and nuclear fuel production
Chemicals and manmade fibers
Paper and printing
Earthenware and ceramics
Transport vehicles
Electrical and optical apparatus
Rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate:7.8% (January-August 1995)

Labor force: 2.484 million
By occupation Industry: 33.2%
By occupation Agriculture: 12.2%
By occupation Construction: 10.3%
By occupation Communication and other: 44.3% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
13% (1995 est.)
14.6% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $6.1 billion (1995 est.), $4.8 billion (1994 est.)
Expenditures: $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.), $4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $350 million (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $8.8 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1995)
$6.3 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1994)

Machinery and transport equipment; chemicals; fuels
And metals; agricultural products

Czech Republic 35.4%
Germany 18.9%
Hungary 4.6%
Austria 5.0%
Italy 4.7%
Russia 3.6%
Poland 4.4%
Ukraine 2.1%
France 2.0%
Netherlands 1.7% (January-October 1995)

Total value:
$8.7 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1995)
$6.1 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1994)

Commodities: Machinery and transport equipment; fuels and lubricants; manufactured goods; raw materials; chemicals; agricultural products
Czech Republic 28.1%
Russia 16.8%
Germany 14.3%
Austria 5.2%
Italy 4.5%
U.S. 2.3%
Poland 2.9%
France 2.3%
Ukraine 1.5%
Netherlands 1.7%
Hungary 2.2% (January-October 1995)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$4.6 billion hard currency indebtedness (1995 est.)
$4.2 billion hard currency indebtedness (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Koruny (Sk) per US$1_29.587 (August 1995), 29.447 (November 1994), 32.045 (1994), 30.770 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989; note_values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rate

Slovakia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 20.9 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,609 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Slovakia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,362,178 (1992 est.) telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Slovakia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Slovakia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 37
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 4
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 10
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 11 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 4

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 10
Under 914 m: 11 (1994 est.)


Pipelines: Petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km



Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Merchant marine: total:4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,010 GRT/22,039 DWT (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Slovakia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe

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