Statistical information Spain 1996Spain

Map of Spain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Spain - Introduction 1996
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Background: A powerful world empire in the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain ultimately yielded command of the seas to England, beginning with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. Spain subsequently failed to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions and fell behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II. In the second half of the 20th century Spain played a catch-up role in the western international community. Continuing problems are large-scale unemployment and the Basque separatist movement.

Spain - Geography 1996
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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 504,750 km²
Land: 499,400 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Comparative note: Includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco_Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Land boundaries: Total 1,903.2 km, Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain: Large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico de Teide on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources:
Iron ore

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 31%
Permanent crops: 10%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 31%
Other: 7%

Irrigated land: 33,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Spain - People 1996
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39,181,114 (July 1996 est.)
39,404,348 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.16% (1996 est.)
0.27% (1995 est.)

Noun: Spaniard(s)
Adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages: Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% and a minority of Valencian

Roman Catholic 99%
Other sects 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
16% (male 3,237,942; female 3,055,881) (July 1996 est.)
17% (male 3,446,643; female 3,214,606) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
68% (male 13,380,956; female 13,352,582) (July 1996 est.)
68% (male 13,457,683; female 13,377,839) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
16% (male 2,566,728; female 3,587,025) (July 1996 est.)
15% (male 2,446,210; female 3,461,367) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.16% (1996 est.)
0.27% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
10.04 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
11.21 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
8.86 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.86 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0.44 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0.31 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Current issues Natural hazards: periodic droughts
International agreements: :Party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: at birth:1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:6.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
6.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.26 years (1996 est.), 77.91 years (1995 est.)
Male: 74.95 years (1996 est.), 74.67 years (1995 est.)
Female: 81.81 years (1996 est.), 81.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1986)
Total population: 96%
Male: 98%
Female: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Spain - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
Conventional short form: Spain
Local long form: Reino de España
Local short form: España

Government type: Parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular_comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco
Note: There are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown

Dependent areas

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: Civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria AZNAR (since 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Narcis SERRA y Serra (since 13 March 1991)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; designated by the prime minister Council of State:Is the supreme consultative organ of the government

Legislative branch: Bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales) Senate (Senado):Elections last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by March 2000; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(256 total) PP 132, PSOE 96, CiU 11, PNV 6, IU 2, others 9 Congress of Deputies (Congreso De Los Diputados):Elections last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by March 2000; results_PP 38.9%, PSOE 37.5%, IU 10.7%, CiU 4.6%; seats_(350 total) PSOE 141, PP 156, IU 21, CiU 16, other 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 8, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Spain: Three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Spain - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Spain, with a mixed capitalist economy and a per capita GDP two-thirds that of the four leading economies of Western Europe, has shared with these countries the recession of the early 1990s, the gradual upturn of 1994-95, and the ongoing controversies over the timing and terms of European economic union. Reduction of the budget deficit_at 5.9% of GDP in 1995_to meet the Maastricht monetary convergence criterion of 3% by 1997 remains the primary goal of Spanish economic policy, but political pressures had kept the Socialist government from implementing the full range of reforms necessary to meet this goal. Spain's official unemployment rate of 23% is the highest in the EU, and the troubled Socialists had been reluctant to cut social spending. Parliament rejected the administration's proposed 1996 budget because of political wrangling_not because of great differences with the substance of the spending plan_forcing the government to continue spending at 1995 levels and use piecemeal decrees to raise consumption taxes to a level consistent with inflation. The conservative opposition Popular Party, now in power after ending 13 years of Socialist rule in the spring of 1996, has promised to cut government spending, loosen regulations on financial markets, and lower taxes to spur job creation. The conservatives have stated support for Spain's role in the EU but also have cautioned against harming Spain's economy by moving too quickly to meet the criteria for monetary union.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
3.3% (1999 est.)
3.5% (1998 est.)
3.4% (1997)
2.3% (1996)
2.9% (1985-1995)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products_grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

Textiles and apparel (including footwear)
Food and beverages
Metals and metal manufactures
Machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 11.837 million
By occupation Services: 59%
By occupation Industry: 21%
By occupation Agriculture: 11%
By occupation Construction: 9% (1993 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
20.8% (1997)
22.1% (1996)
22.9% (1995)
24.1% (1994)
22.8% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $96.8 billion (1994 est.), $97.7 billion (1993 est.)
$122.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (1994 est.)
$128 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $85 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
$72.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993)

Cars and trucks
Semifinished manufactured goods

EU 68.7%
U.S. 4.9%
Other developed countries 7.9% (1994)

Total value:
$110 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
$92.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993)

Transport equipment
Semifinished goods
Consumer goods

EU 60.9%
U.S. 7.3%
Other developed countries 11.5%
Middle East 6.2% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Pesetas (Ptas) per US$1_123.19 (January 1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990)_In 1993 the peseta was devaluated several times.

Spain - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 148 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,545 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Spain - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 12.6 million telephones (1990 est.); generally adequate, modern facilities
Domestic: nationwide GSM mobile phone system
International: 22 coaxial submarine cables; 2 earth stations for INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); earth stations for working the EUTELSAT, INMARSAT, and MARECS satellite communications systems; microwave tropospheric scatter links to adjacent countries

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Spain - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.3 billion, 1.4% of GDP (1995), $8 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Spain - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 96
With paved runways over 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 12 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 28

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 15
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 12 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 28

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: :2 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas 1,666 km



Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Merchant marine
Total: 147 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 874,688 GRT/1,391,421 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 36, chemical tanker 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 8, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 25, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 32, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Spain - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin


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