Statistical information Swaziland 1996Swaziland

Map of Swaziland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Swaziland in the World
Swaziland in the World


Swaziland - Introduction 1996
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Background: Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.

Swaziland - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 17,360 km²
Land: 17,200 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: Total 535 km, Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: Mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Extremes lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
Extremes highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources:
Small gold and diamond deposits
Quarry stone
And talc

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10.9%
Permanent crops: 0.2%
Permanent pastures: 62.2%
Forests and woodland: 6.9%
Other: 19.8%

Irrigated land: 640 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: Landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

Swaziland - People 1996
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998,730 (July 1996 est.)
966,977 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
3.24% (1996 est.)
3.23% (1995 est.)

Noun: Swazi(s)
Adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups:
African 97%
European 3%

Languages: English (official; government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)

Christian 60%
Indigenous beliefs 40%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
46% (male 227,634; female 229,129) (July 1996 est.)
46% (male 221,003; female 222,544) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
52% (male 247,156; female 271,096) (July 1996 est.)
52% (male 238,726; female 261,973) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
2% (male 9,864; female 13,851) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 9,440; female 13,291) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
3.24% (1996 est.)
3.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
42.91 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
43.06 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
10.56 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.8 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited access to potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:88.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
90.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 57.26 years (1996 est.), 56.84 years (1995 est.)
Male: 53.25 years 91,996 est.), 52.83 years (1995 est.)
Female: 61.4 years (1996 est.), 60.96 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.05 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 76.7%
Male: 78%
Female: 75.6%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Swaziland - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
Conventional short form: Swaziland

Government type: Monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative; Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: None; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: Based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: NA; note_no suffrage before September 1993; 55 of the 65 seats in the House of Assembly were filled by popular vote in the elections of September and October 1993; of a population of less than 1 million, the electorate numbered 283,693

Executive branch
Chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986) is a hereditary monarch
Head of government: Prime Minister Prince Jameson Mbilini DLAMINI (since 12 November 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet; designated by the monarch

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament is advisory Senate:Consists of 30 members (10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the king) House of Assembly:Elections last held 26 September and 11 October 1993 (next to be held NA; results_balloting is done on a nonparty basis; of the total of 65 seats, 10 are appointed by the king and 55 are elected by secret, popular vote; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Swaziland: Three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Swaziland - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: This small landlocked economy is based largely on subsistence agriculture, which occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 90% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports. Remittances from Swazi workers in South African mines supplement domestically produced income by as much as 20%. Overgrazing, soil depletion, and drougth persist as problems for the future.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.6% (1995 est.)
4.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops_sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, citrus fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock_corn, sorghum, peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Mining (coal and asbestos)
Wood pulp

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4.2% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 160,355 (1986 est.)
By occupation Private sector about: 65%
By occupation Public sector: 35%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $342 million
Expenditures: $410 million, including capital expenditures of $130 million (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $798 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
$632 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Edible concentrates
Wood pulp
Cotton yarn

South Africa 50%
EU countries

Total value:
$827 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
$734 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Motor vehicles
Transport equipment
Petroleum products

South Africa 90%
U.K. 2.6%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $240 million (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Emalangeni (E) per US$1 -3.6417 (January 1996), 3.6266 (1995), 3.5490 (1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990; note_the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Swaziland - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 410 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,003 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Swaziland - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 30,364 telephones (1993 est.); telephone density is only 17.6 telephones/1000 persons
Local: NA
Intercity: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity radio relay microwave links
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Swaziland - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $22 million, NA of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Swaziland - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 17
2438 to 3047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 6 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Swaziland - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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