Statistical information Tajikistan 1996Tajikistan

Map of Tajikistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Tajikistan in the World
Tajikistan in the World


Tajikistan - Introduction 1996
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Background: Tajikistan has experienced three changes of government since it gained independence in September 1991. The current president, Emomali RAKHMONOV, was elected to the presidency in November 1994, yet has been in power since 1992. The country is suffering through its third year of a civil war, with no clear end in sight. Underlying the conflict are deeply-rooted regional and clan-based animosities that pit a government consisting of people primarily from the Kulob (Kulyab), Khujand (Leninabad), and Hisor (Hissar) regions against a secular and Islamic-led opposition from the Gharm, Gorno-Badakhshan, and Qurghonteppa (Kurgan-Tyube) regions. Government and opposition representatives have held periodic rounds of UN-mediated peace talks and agreed in September 1994 to a cease-fire. Russian-led peacekeeping troops are deployed throughout the country, and Russian border guards are stationed along the Tajik-Afghan border.

Tajikistan - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 143,100 km²
Land: 142,700 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: Total 3,651 km, Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamir and Altay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Extremes lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m
Extremes highest point: Qullai Kommunizm 7,495 m

Natural resources:
Significant hydropower potential
Some petroleum
Brown coal

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 23%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 71%

Irrigated land: 6,940 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Tajikistan - People 1996
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5,916,373 (July 1996 est.)
6,155,474 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.54% (1996 est.)
2.6% (1995 est.)

Noun: Tajik(s)
Adjective: Tajik

Ethnic groups:
Tajik 64.9%
Uzbek 25%
Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration)
Other 6.6%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Sunni Muslim 80%
Shi'a Muslim 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
43% (male 1,282,846; female 1,258,302) (July 1996 est.)
43% (male 1,340,086; female 1,303,627) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
53% (male 1,546,264; female 1,566,365) (July 1996 est.)
53% (male 1,624,379; female 1,612,429) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 110,705; female 151,891) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 117,112; female 157,841) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.54% (1996 est.)
2.6% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
33.78 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
34.06 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
8.43 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.58 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-9.93 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-1.44 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea which suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: NA
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:113.1 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
60.4 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.45 years (1996 est.), 69.03 years (1995 est.)
Male: 60.84 years (1996 est.), 66.11 years (1995 est.)
Female: 68.24 years (1996 est.), 72.1 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)
4.55 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 97%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Tajikistan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
Conventional short form: Tajikistan
Local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
Local short form: Tojikistan
Former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular_viloyat) and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh_formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa_formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobad (Khujand_formerly Leninabad)
Note: The administrative center names are in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: New constitution adopted 6 November 1994

Legal system: Based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Emomili RAKHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; was Head of State and Assembly Chairman since NA November 1992); election last held 6 November 1994 (next to be held NA 1998); results_Emomili RAKHMONOV 58%, Abdumalik ABDULLAJANOV 40%
Head of government: Prime Minister Yahyo AZIMOV (since 8 February 1996) was appointed by the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Majlisi Oli):Elections last held 26 February and 12 March 1995 (next to be held NA 2000; results_percent of vote by party NA; estimated seats_(181 total) Communist Party and affiliates 100, People's Party 10, Party of People's Unity 6, Party of Economic and Political Renewal 1, other 64

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Tajikistan: Three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a crown surmounted by seven five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Tajikistan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Tajikistan had the next-to-lowest per capita GDP in the former USSR, the highest rate of population growth, and an extremely low standard of living. Agriculture dominates the economy, with cotton being the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry is limited to a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The Tajik economy has been gravely weakened by four years of civil conflict and by the loss of subsidies and markets for its products, which has left Tajikistan dependent on Russia and Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. Moreover, constant political turmoil and the continued dominance by former communist officials have impeded the introduction of meaningful economic reforms. The regime has made only halfhearted efforts to stabilize the economy and promote reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-12.4% (1995 est.)
-12% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep and goats

Chemicals and fertilizers
Vegetable oil
Metal-cutting machine tools
Refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -5% (1995), -31% (1994)

Labor force: 1.95 million (1992)
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 43%
By occupation Government and services: 24%
By occupation Industry: 14%
By occupation Trade and communications: 11%
By occupation Construction: 8% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.3% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people (December 1995)
1.5% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people (September 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $707 million (1995)
$320 million to outside the FSU countries (1994)

Vegetable oil


Total value:
$690 million (1995)
$318 million from outside the FSU countries (1994)

Machinery and transport equipment


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $635 million (of which $250 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Tajik rubles per US$1_400 (1997), 284 (January 1996; (In some places, such as the Pamirs, the 'economy' operates on a bartering system)

Tajikistan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,400 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Tajikistan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 303,000 telephones (December 1991); poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network
Local: NA
Intercity: cable and microwave radio relay
International: linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics, and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by INTELSAT to international gateway switch in Ankara; 1 Orbita and 2 INTELSAT earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Tajikistan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Tajikistan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 59
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 7
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m:

With paved runways under 914 m: 36

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 7
914 to 1523 m:

Under 914 m: 36

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Natural gas 400 km (1992)




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Tajikistan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America

Economy Bookings

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