Statistical information Thailand 1996Thailand

Map of Thailand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Thailand in the World
Thailand in the World


Thailand - Introduction 1996
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.

Thailand - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Myanmar (Burma)

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 514,000 km²
Land: 511,770 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: Total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September; dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March; southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: Central plain; Khorat plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Extremes lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
Extremes highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Permanent crops: 4%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 30%
Other: 31%

Irrigated land: 42,300 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Thailand - People 1996
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58,851,357 (July 1996 est.)
60,271,300 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.03% (1996 est.)
1.24% (1995 est.)

Noun: Thai (singular and plural)
Adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups:
Thai 75%
Chinese 14%
Other 11%

Languages: Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional dialects

Buddhism 95%
Muslim 3.8%
Christianity 0.5%
Hinduism 0.1%
Other 0.6% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
25% (male 7,627,916; female 7,351,264) (July 1996 est.)
29% (male 8,866,271; female 8,545,362) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years: 69% (male 19,994,884; female 20,576,141) (July 1996 est.) 66% (male 20,185,392; female 19,733,773) (July 1995 est.)
65 years and over:
6% (male 1,468,814; female 1,832,338) (July 1996 est.)
5% (male 1,304,076; female 1,636,426) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.03% (1996 est.)
1.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
17.29 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
18.87 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
7 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.48 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Current issues Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
International agreements: party to_Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the sea
International agreements note: Controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:33.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
35.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.6 years 91,996 est.), 68.42 years (1995 est.)
Male: 64.89 years (1996 est.), 64.94 years (1995 est.)
Female: 72.49 years (1996 est.), 72.08 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.04 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 93.8%
Male: 96%
Female: 91.6%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Thailand - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
Conventional short form: Thailand

Government type: Constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural; Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: New constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992

Legal system: Based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23 February 1991 military coup

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
Head of government: Prime Minister BANHAN Sinlapa-acha (since 13 July 1995); prime minister must be appointed from among the members of the House of Representatives
Cabinet: Council of Ministers Privy Council:NA

Legislative branch: Bicameral National Assembly (Rathasapha) Senate (Wuthisapha):Consists of a 270-member appointed body House of Representatives (Sapha Phuthaen-Ratsadon):Elections last held 2 July 1995 (next to be held 2 July 1999; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(391 total) TNP 93, DP 86, NAP 56, NDP 53, PDP 23, SAP 23, NTP 18, TCP 18, LDP 10, SP 8, MP 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sandika), judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: Five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Thailand - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: One of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, Thailand depends on exports of manufactures_including high-technology goods_and the development of the service sector to fuel the country's rapid growth, averaging 9% since 1989. Most of Thailand's recent imports have been for capital equipment and raw materials, although imports of consumer goods are beginning to rise. Thailand's 35% domestic savings rate is a key source of capital for the economy, and the country is also benefiting from rising investment from abroad. Prime Minister BANHAN's government_Thailand's sixth government in five years_undoubtedly will continue Bangkok's probusiness policies despite some concerns that it is relaxing Bangkok's traditional fiscal austerity. BANHAN is beginning to address Thailand's serious infrastructure bottlenecks, especially in the transport and telecommunications sectors. Over the longer term, Bangkok must produce more college graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue its rapid economic development.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
1% (1997 est.)
6.7% (1996 est.)
8.6% (1995 est.)
8% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 10.2% of GDP and 57% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca; other crops_rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food

Tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange
Textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry
Electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics
World's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 13.3% (1995 est.), 11.5% (1993 est.), accounts for 30.6% of GDP

Labor force: 32,152,600
By occupation Agriculture: 57%
By occupation Industry: 17%
By occupation Commerce: 11%
By occupation Services (including government): 15% (1993 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
2.7% (1995 est.)
3.2% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $28.4 billion
Expenditures: $28.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.1 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 October_30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $45.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Machinery and manufactures 73%
Agricultural products and fisheries 21%
Raw materials 5%
Fuels 1% (1994 est.)

U.S. 21.0%
Japan 17.1%
Singapore 13.6%
Hong Kong 5.3%
Germany 3.5%
U.K. 3.0%
Netherlands 2.8%
Malaysia 2.4% (1994)

Imports: total value:$53.9 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Manufactures 80%
Fuels 6.9%
Raw materials 6.6%
Foodstuffs 4.3% (1994 est.)

Japan 30.4%
U.S. 11.9%
Singapore 6.3%
Germany 5.8%
Taiwan 5.1%
Malaysia 4.9%
South Korea 3.7%
China 2.6% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $64.3 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Baht (B) per US$1_25.300 (January 1996), 25.000 (1995 est.), 25.150 (1994), 25.319 (1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990)

Thailand - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 56.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 909 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Thailand - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,553,200 telephones (1994 est.); service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic satellite system being developed
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Thailand - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.0 billion, 2.5% of GNP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Thailand - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 98
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 12 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 36

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 12 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 36

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km



Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine
Total: 259 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,559,037 GRT/2,498,812 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 32, cargo 143, chemical tanker 3, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 12, oil tanker 45, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 2 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Thailand - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: A minor producer of opium and marijuana; major illicit transit point for heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a major drug money laundering center; rapidly growing role in amphetamine production for regional consumption; increasing indigenous abuse of heroin and cocaine


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