Statistical information Turkmenistan 1996Turkmenistan

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Turkmenistan - Introduction 1996
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Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.

Turkmenistan - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakstan

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 488,100 km²
Land: 488,100 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: Total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Subtropical desert

Terrain: Flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

Extremes lowest point: Sarygamysh Koli -110 m
Extremes highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 69%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 29%

Irrigated land: 12,450 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Turkmenistan - People 1996
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4,149,283 (July 1996 est.)
4,075,316 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.82% (1996 est.)
1.97% (1995 est.)

Noun: Turkmen(s)
Adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic groups:
Turkmen 73.3%
Russian 9.8%
Uzbek 9%
Kazakh 2%
Other 5.9%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Muslim 87%
Eastern Orthodox 11%
Unknown 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
39% (male 826,637; female 804,385) (July 1996 est.)
40% (male 821,550; female 798,620) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
56% (male 1,154,415; female 1,188,173) (July 1996 est.)
56% (male 1,128,844; female 1,155,392) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
5% (male 65,447; female 110,226) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 65,486; female 105,424) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.82% (1996 est.)
1.97% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
29.12 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
29.93 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
8.89 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.34 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-2.08 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-2.92 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Climate Change, Desertification
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:81.6 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
68.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 61.48 years (1996 est.), 65.35 years (1995 est.)
Male: 56.68 years (1996 est.), 61.85 years (1995 est.)
Female: 66.52 years (1996 est.), 69.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.62 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 97%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Turkmenistan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Turkmenistan
Local long form: none
Local short form: Turkmenistan
Former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Ashgabat (Ashkhabat)

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular_welayat):Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
Note: Names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from welayat name

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: Adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occured) was elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002); results_Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed); note_a 15 January 1994 referendum extended NIYAZOV's term an additional five years until 2002 (99.99% approval)
Head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Mukhamed ABALAKOV (since NA), Babamurad BAZAROV (since NA), Hekim ISHANOV (since NA), Valeriy OTCHERTSOV (since NA), Yagmur OVEZOV (since NA), Matkarim RAJAPOV (since NA), Pirkuly ODEYEV (since NA), Rejep SAPAROV (since NA), Boris SHIKHMURADOV (since NA), Batyr SARJAYEV (since NA), Amannazar ILAMANOV (since NA), Ilaman SHYKHYYEV (since NA) were appointed by the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president
Note: NIYAZOV has been asked by various local groups, most recently on 26 October 1995 at the annual elders meeting, to be "president for life," but that would require an amendment to the constitution

Legislative branch: Under 1992 constitution there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council (Halk Maslahaty_having more than 100 members and meeting infrequently) and a 50-member unicameral Assembly (Majlis) Assembly (Majlis):Elections last held 11 December 1994 (next to be held NA; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(50 total) Democratic Party 45, other 5; note_all 50 preapproved by President NIYAZOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Turkmenistan:
Green field, including a white crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls and a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and orange carpet guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs) associated with five different tribes;
This assymetrical design has recently been changed.

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Turkmenistan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also has the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. The economy remained depressed through 1995 while inflation soared. Furthermore, with an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. For 1996, Turkmenistan will face continuing constraints on its earnings because of its customers' inability to pay for their gas and a below average cotton crop in 1995. Turkmenistan is working hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and Turkey, but these will take many years to realize.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-10% (1995 est.)
-24% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Cotton, grain, animal husbandry

Natural gas
Petroleum products
Food processing

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -7% (1995), -25% (1994)

Labor force: 1.642 million (January 1994)
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 44%
By occupation Industry and construction: 20%
By occupation Other: 36% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $1.9 billion to states outside the FSU (1995)
$382 million to states outside the FSU (1994)

Natural gas
Petroleum products

Eastern Europe

Total value:
$777 million from states outside the FSU (1995)
$304 million from states outside the FSU (1994)

Machinery and parts
Grain and food
Plastics and rubber
Consumer durables


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $400 million (of which $275 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Manats per US$1_manats per US$1_5,300 (1997), 2,400 (January 1996)
Note: government established a unified rate in mid-January 1996

Turkmenistan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,400 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Turkmenistan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones; poorly developed
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via INTELSAT; 1 Orbita and 1 INTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Turkmenistan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Turkmenistan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 64
2438 to 3047 m: 13
15-24 to 2437 m: 8
914 to 1523 m:

Under 914 m: 35

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Turkmenistan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe

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