Statistical information Uzbekistan 1996Uzbekistan

Map of Uzbekistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Uzbekistan in the World
Uzbekistan in the World


Uzbekistan - Introduction 1996
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Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1925. During the Soviet era intensive production of 'white gold' (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militant groups from Tajikistan and Afghanistan a non-convertible currency and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Uzbekistan - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 447,400 km²
Land: 425,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: Total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: Mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Sirdaryo Rivers; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Extremes lowest point: Saryqamish Kuli -12 m
Extremes highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas
Lead and zinc

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 47%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 42%

Irrigated land: 41,550 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Uzbekistan - People 1996
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23,418,381 (July 1996 est.)
23,089,261 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.87% (1996 est.)
2.08% (1995 est.)

Noun: Uzbek(s)
Adjective: Uzbek

Ethnic groups:
Uzbek 71.4%
Russian 8.3%
Tajik 4.7%
Kazakh 4.1%
Tatar 2.4%
Karakalpak 2.1%
Other 7%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%
Other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
40% (male 4,732,585; female 4,618,503) (July 1996 est.)
40% (male 4,670,496; female 4,553,432) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
55% (male 6,441,052; female 6,540,479) (July 1996 est.)
55% (male 6,384,862; female 6,400,578) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
5% (male 416,571; female 669,191) (July 1996 est.)
5% (male 422,960; female 656,933) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.87% (1996 est.)
2.08% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
29.86 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
29.45 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
8.02 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.44 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-3.13 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-2.23 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:79.6 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
52 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.6 years (1996 est.), 68.79 years (1995 est.)
Male: 60.44 years (1996 est.), 65.5 years (1995 est.)
Female: 68.97 years (1996 est.), 72.24 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.67 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Uzbekistan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
Conventional short form: Uzbekistan
Local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
Local short form: Uzbekiston
Former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular_wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati, Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
Note: An administrative division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: New constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: Evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet) was elected for a five-year term by popular vote; election last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000); results_Islam KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%; note_the 26 March 1995 referendum extended KARIMOV's term until 2000 (99.6% approval)
Head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since December 1995), First Deputy Prime Minister Ismoil JURABEKOV (since NA), Deputy Prime Ministers Viktor CHIZHEN (since NA), Bakhtiyor HAMIDOV (since NA), Kayim HAQQULOV (since NA), Rim GINIYATULLIN (since NA), Saidmukhtor SAIDQOSIMOV (since NA), Mirabror USMONOV (since NA), Murat SHARIFKHOJAYEV (since NA), Uktam ISMAILOV (since NA), Rustam YUNUSOV (since NA) were appointed by the president
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly

Legislative branch: Unicameral Supreme Council:Elections last held 25 December 1994 (next to be held NA 1999; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(250 total) People's Democratic Party 207, Fatherland Progress Party 12, other 31; note_final runoffs were held 22 January 1995; seating was as follows:People's Democratic Party 69, Fatherland Progress Party 14, Social Democratic Party 47, local government 120

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM, OIC (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Uzbekistan: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Uzbekistan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It was one of the poorest republics of the former Soviet Union with more than 60% of its population living in overpopulated rural communities. At the same time, Uzbekistan is the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government stepped up the pace of reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter monetary policies, expanding privatization, reducing the role of the state in the economy, and improving the environment for foreign investors. Nevertheless, the state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy, and reforms have so far failed to induce far-reaching structural changes.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-1% (1995 est.)
-4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain, livestock

Food processing
Machine building
Natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 0% (1995 est.), 1% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 8.234 million
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 43%
By occupation Industry and construction: 22%
By occupation Other: 35% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
0.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers (December 1995)
0.3% includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $3.1 billion (1995)
$943.7 million to outside the FSU countries (1994)

Natural gas
Mineral fertilizers
Ferrous metals
Food products

Eastern Europe

Total value:
$2.9 billion (1995)
$1.15 billion from outside the FSU countries (1994)

Machinery and parts
Consumer durables
Other foods

Principally other FSU countries
Czech Republic

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.285 billion (of which $510 million to Russia)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Soms per US$1_35.8 (end December 1995), 25 (yearend 1994)

Uzbekistan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 47.5 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,130 kWh (1994)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Uzbekistan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,458 million telephones 91,995 est.); 63 telephones/1000 persons (1995); poorly developed
Local: NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent
Intercity: NA
International: linked by landline or microwave with CIS member states and by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; new INTELSAT links to Tokyo and Ankara give Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian facilities; Orbita and INTELSAT earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Uzbekistan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Uzbekistan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 261
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 14
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With paved runways under 914 m: 5
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 216

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 14
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 5

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 216


Pipelines: Crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Uzbekistan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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