Statistical information Vietnam 1996Vietnam

Map of Vietnam | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Vietnam in the World
Vietnam in the World

Vietnam - Introduction 1996
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Background: France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was declared after World War II but the French continued to rule until 1954 when they were defeated by communist forces under HO Chi Minh who took control of the north. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the south. Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven difficult as aging Communist Party leaders have only grudgingly initiated reforms necessary for a free market.

Vietnam - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, between China and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 329,560 km²
Land: 325,360 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: Total 3,818 km, Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Terrain: Low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

Extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Ngoc Linh 3,143 m

Natural resources:
Offshore oil deposits

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 22%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 40%
Other: 35%

Irrigated land: 18,300 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Vietnam - People 1996
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73,976,973 (July 1996 est.)
74,393,324 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.57% (1996 est.)
1.71% (1995 est.)

Noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Vietnamese

Ethnic groups:
Vietnamese 85%-90%
Chinese 3%
Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham

Languages: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islam, Protestant

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
36% (male 13,739,304; female 12,988,929) (July 1996 est.)
36% (male 13,918,321; female 13,225,916) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
59% (male 20,956,735; female 22,448,944) (July 1996 est.)
59% (male 21,223,739; female 22,353,710) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
5% (male 1,548,513; female 2,294,548) (July 1996 est.)
5% (male 1,435,185; female 2,236,453) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.57% (1996 est.)
1.71% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
23 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
26.25 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
6.95 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.6 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-0.35 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-1.51 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices are contributing to deforestation; soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threatening marine life populations; inadequate supplies of potable water because of groundwater contamination
Current issues Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:38.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
44.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.02 years (1996 est.), 65.72 years (1995 est.)
Male: 64.69 years (1996 est.), 63.66 years (1995 est.)
Female: 69.48 years (1996 est.), 67.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.21 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995)
Total population: 93.7%
Male: 96.5%
Female: 91.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Vietnam - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Conventional short form: Vietnam
Local long form: Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
Local short form: Viet Nam Abbreviation:SRV

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thu do, singular and plural; An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ho Chi Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Song Be, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai

Dependent areas

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Constitution: 15 April 1992

Legal system: Based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Le Duc ANH (since 23 September 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991) was appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; First Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991) and Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen KHANH (since NA February 1987) and Tran Duc LUONG (since NA February 1987) were appointed by the prime minister
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on proposal of the prime minister and ratification of the Assembly

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi):Elections last held 19 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1997; results_VCP is the only party; seats_(395 total) VCP or VCP-approved 395

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Vietnam: Red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Vietnam - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Vietnam's economic performance has been impressive in 1990-95, with real growth averaging over 8% annually. Much of this growth comes from a surge in foreign investment outlays which are estimated at $750 million in 1995, up 50% from 1993 levels. Utilization rates for official development assistance are also increasing, rising to an estimated $535 million in 1995. Foreign capital is contributing to a boom in commercial construction and strong growth in services and industrial output. Crude oil remains the country's largest single export but now accounts for only one-quarter of total exports, slightly more than manufactures. Imports are dominated by capital and intermediate goods closely related to investment outlays. Vietnamese authorities may not be moving quickly enough to establish the financial and legal infrastructure needed to sustain growth through the remainder of the decade. Reform of the banking sector is proceeding slowly, raising concerns that the country will be unable to tap sufficient domestic savings to maintain rapid growth. Administrative and legal barriers are leading to costly delays for foreign investors, raising doubts about Vietnam's ability to maintain the inflow of foreign capital. While government officials are leading an effort to accelerate reform, their continuing ideological bias in favor of state intervention and control of the economy may slow progress toward a more liberalized investment environment. Even with the strong growth of the economy, unemployment at 25% remains a major problem.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
9.5% (1995 est.)
8.8% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 36% of GDP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas) and animal products 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.), note_the third largest exporter of rice in the World, behind the U.S. and Thailand

Food processing
Machine building
Chemical fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 14% (1995 est.), 13% (1994 est.), accounts for 21% of GDP

Labor force: 32.7 million
By occupation Agricultural: 65%
By occupation Industrial and service: 35% (1990 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
25% (1995 est.)
20% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $4.67 billion (1995 est.), $3.6 billion (1994 est.)
Expenditures: $5 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.36 billion (1995 est.), $4.5 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $5.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Crude oil
Marine products

Hong Kong
South Korea

Total value:
$7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Petroleum products
Machinery and equipment
Steel products
Raw cotton

South Korea
Hong Kong

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7.3 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA debts primarily to Russia; $9 billion to $18 billion nonconvertible debt (former CEMA, Iraq, Iran)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: New dong (D) per US$1_11,193 (1995 average), 11,000 (October 1994), 10,800 (November 1993), 8,100 (July 1991), 7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990)

Vietnam - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 20 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 200 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Vietnam - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 800,000 telephones (1995 est.); while Vietnam's telecommunication sector lags far behind other countries in Southeast Asia, Hanoi has made considerable progress since 1991 in upgrading the system; Vietnam has digitized fully 100% of provincial switch boards, while fiber-optic and microwave transmission systems have been extended from Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City to all provinces; the density of telephone receivers nationwide doubled from 1993 to 1995, but is still far behind other countries in the region; Vietnam's telecommunications strategy aims to increase telephone density to 30 per 1,000 inhabitants by the year 2000 and authorities estimate that approximately $2.7 billion will be spent on telecommunications upgrades through the end of the decade
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Vietnam - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $544 million, 2.7% of GDP (1995), $435 million, 2.5% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Vietnam - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 48
With paved runways over 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 5

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 8
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 5

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Petroleum products 150 km



Waterways: 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

Merchant marine
Total: 112 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 569,269 GRT/947,938 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 95, oil tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Ports and terminals

Vietnam - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Opium producer and increasingly important transit point for Southeast Asian heroin destined for the U.S. and Europe; growing opium addiction; small-scale heroin producer

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