Statistical information Zambia 1996Zambia

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Zambia - Introduction 1996
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Background: The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the South Africa Company from 1891 until takeover by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties.


Zambia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 752,610 km²
Land: 740,720 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: Total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: Mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
Extremes highest point: in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources:
Copper
Cobalt
Zinc
Lead
Coal
Emeralds
Gold
Silver
Uranium
Hydropower potential

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 47%
Forests and woodland: 27%
Other: 19%

Irrigated land: 320 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Zambia - People 1996
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Population:
9,159,072 (July 1996 est.)
9,445,723 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.11% (1996 est.)
2.7% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Zambian(s)
Adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups:
African 98.7%
European 1.1%
Other 0.2%


Languages: English (official)
Note: About 70 indigenous languages

Religions:
Christian 50%-75%
Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%
Indigenous beliefs 1%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
49% (male 2,272,981; female 2,244,403) (July 1996 est.)
50% (male 2,363,319; female 2,331,820) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
48% (male 2,157,106; female 2,256,935) (July 1996 est.)
48% (male 2,193,363; female 2,332,798) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 110,433; female 117,214) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 111,939; female 112,484) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.11% (1996 est.)
2.7% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
44.73 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
45.47 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
23.65 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
18.42 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-0.04 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Current issues Natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:96.1 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
86 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 36.31 years (1996 est.), 42.88 years (1995 est.)
Male: 36.15 years (1996 est.), 42.74 years (1995 est.)
Female: 36.46 years (1996 est.), 43.03 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write in English (1995 est.)
Total population: 78.2%
Male: 85.6%
Female: 71.3%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Zambia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
Conventional short form: Zambia
Former: Northern Rhodesia

Government type: Republic

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: Based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President General Godfrey MIYANDA (since NA August 1994; he replaced Levy MWANAWASA who was elected 31 October 1991 and resigned in NA August 1994) election last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results_Frederick CHILUBA 84%, Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the National Assembly

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly:Elections last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25; note_the MMD's majority was weakened by the defection of 13 of its parliamentary members during 1993 and the defeat of its candidates in 4 of the resulting by-elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Zambia: Green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Zambia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Despite continuing progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambia's economy is showing little improvement. Inflation, while slowing somewhat, continues to be a major concern to the CHILUBA government. Four of Zambia's 20 banks collapsed in 1995, and the nation's debt stood at about $7 billion. Zambia's copper mining sector, which accounts for over 80% of the nation's foreign currency intake, is struggling. Production rates are down as are world copper prices. Food production is insufficient to meet the country's needs due to previous droughts and an end to government subsidization of agriculture. While the government's economic program aims for 6% growth in each of the next three years, a growth rate of 3-5% is more likely.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 12% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops_corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs

Industries:
Copper mining and processing
Construction
Foodstuffs
Beverages
Chemicals
Textiles
And fertilizer


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -1% (1992; accounts for 42% of GDP

Labor force: 3.4 million
By occupation agriculture: 85%
By occupation mining and construction: 6%
By occupation transport and services: 9%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $665 million
Expenditures: $767 million, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $1.075 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
$1.01 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Copper
Zinc
Cobalt
Lead
Tobacco

Partners:
EU countries
Japan
South Africa
U.S.
India
Thailand
Malaysia


Imports
Total value:
$845 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
$1.13 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Machinery
Transportation equipment
Foodstuffs
Fuels
Manufactures

Partners:
EU countries
Japan
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
U.S.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$7 billion (1995 est.)
$7.3 billion (1993)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1_909.09 (December 1995), 833.33 (1995), 769.23 (1994), 434.78 (1993), 156.25 (1992), 61.7284 (1991), 28.9855 (1990)


Zambia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 650 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Zambia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 80,900 telephones (1987 est.); facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
Local: NA
Intercity: high capacity micrwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities
International: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Zambia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $96 million, 2.7% of GDP (1995), $45 million, 1.4% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Zambia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 104
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 54 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 35

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 54 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 35

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 1,724 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Zambia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Increasingly a regional transshipment center for methaqualone and heroin


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