Ireland 1997Ireland

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Ireland
Ireland 

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Ireland - Introduction 1997
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Background: Growing Irish nationalism resulted in independence from the United Kingdom in 1921, with six largely Protestant northern counties remaining within the UK. After World War II bloody strife between Catholics and Protestants over the status of Northern Ireland cost thousands of lives.


Ireland - Geography 1997
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Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 70,280 km²
Land: 68,890 km²
Water: 1,390 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 360 km
Border countries: (1) UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Carrauntoohill 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 13%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 68%
Forests and woodland: 5%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 60 miles of Dublin


Ireland - People 1997
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Population: 3,606,952 (July 1997 est.)
Growth rate: -0.33% (1997 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
Adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, English

Languages: Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard, English is the language generally used

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23% (male 415,747; female 393,181)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,203,792; female 1,185,935)
65 years and over: 11% (male 173,566; female 234,731) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.43 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.49 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.1 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.98 years
Male: 73.24 years
Female: 78.89 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98% (1981 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ireland - Government 1997
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Ireland

Government type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990)
Head of government: Prime Minister John BRUTON (since 15 December 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held NA November 1997); prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president
Election results: Mary Bourke ROBINSON elected president; percent of vote - Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats, 49 elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote and proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
Elections: Senate - last held NA February 1992 (next to be held NA February 1997); House of Representatives - last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1997)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Fianna Fail 26, Fine Gael 16, Labor 9, Progressive Democrats 2, Democratic Left 1, independents 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party 19.3%, Progressive Democrats 4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein 1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%, independents 5.9%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labor Party 33, Progressive Democrats 10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1, independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president on the advice of the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER (will return to Dublin in July)
In the us chancery: 2,234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-3,939
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-5,993
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH
From the us embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [353] (1) 6,688,777
From the us FAX: [353] (1) 6,689,946

Flag descriptionflag of Ireland: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ireland - Economy 1997
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Economy overview: The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 38% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 26% of the labor force. Although exports remain the primary engine for Ireland's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer spending and recovery in both construction and business investment. Since the 1980s, inflation has fallen sharply and chronic trade deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses. Unemployment remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is the main focus of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin aggressively courts foreign investors and recently created a new industrial development agency to aid small indigenous firms.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8.9%
Industry: 38.6%
Services: 52.5% (1994)

Agriculture products: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; meat and dairy products

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Industrial production growth rate: 8.9% (1995 est.)

Labor force
Total: 1.474 million (1996 est.)
By occupation services: 62.3%
By occupation manufacturing and construction: 26.0%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 10.6%
By occupation utilities: 1.1% (1996 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (April 1996)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $22.6 billion
Expenditures: $23.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.3 billion (1995)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports
Total value: $43.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
Commodities: chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals, animal products
Partners: EU 70% (UK 26%, Germany 14%, France 9%), US 6%

Imports
Total value: $32.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
Commodities: food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing
Partners: EU 58% (UK 37%, Germany 7%, France 4%), US 17%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.5 billion (1995)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (£Ir) per US$1 - 0.6123 (January 1997), 0.6248 (1996), 0.6235 (1995), 0.6676 (1994), 0.6816 (1993), 0.5864 (1992)


Ireland - Energy 1997
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 17.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,343 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ireland - Communication 1997
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay
Domestic: microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ireland - Military 1997
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $618 million (1994)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ireland - Transportation 1997
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 40 (1996 est.)
With paved runways total: 37
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 29 (1996 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 37
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 29 (1996 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 3
914 to 1523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 225 km

Railways
Total: 1,947 km
Broad gauge: 1,947 km 1.600-m gauge (37 km electrified; 485 km double track) (1996)

Roadways

Waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Merchant marine
Total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 130,029 GRT/148,516 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 27, chemical tanker 2, container 5, oil tanker 1, short-sea passenger 3 (1996 est.)

Ports and terminals


Ireland - Transnational issues 1997
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Disputes international: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; transshipment point for heroin and cocaine


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