Macedonia 1997Macedonia

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Macedonia - Introduction 1997
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Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. FYROM's large Albanian minority and the de facto independence of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.

Macedonia - Geography 1997
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Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: total:25,333 km²; land:24,856 km²; water:477 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: total:748 km; border countries:Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Extremes: lowest point:Vardar River 50 m; highest point:Korab 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber
Land use

Land use: arable land:24%; permanent crops:2%; permanent pastures:25%; forests and woodland:39%; other:10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

Macedonia - People 1997
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Population: 1,995,859 (July 1997 est.); note:the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted
Growth rate: 0.68% (1997 est.)

Nationality: noun:Macedonian(s); adjective:Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure: 0-14 years:24% (male 245,923; female 231,621); 15-64 years:67% (male 670,535; female 665,556); 65 years and over:9% (male 82,285; female 99,939) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.88 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.13 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: at birth:1.08 male(s)/female; under 15 years:1.06 male(s)/female; 15-64 years:1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over:0.82 male(s)/female; total population:1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20.3 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:72.48 years; male:70.41 years; female:74.71 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Macedonia - Government 1997
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Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; conventional short form: none; local long form: Republika Makedonija; local short form: Makedonija; abbreviation:FYROM

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica; note:in September 1996, the Macedonian Parliament passed legislation changing the territorial division of the country; names of the 123 new municipalities are not yet available

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991); head of government:Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992); cabinet:Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - after the withdrawal of the Liberal Party (LP) from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of Ministers was reorganized without LP participation; elections:president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); election results:Kiro GLIGOROV elected president; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections:last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998); election results:percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SDSM 58, LP 29, SP 8, PDP 10, NDP 4, independents 7, other 4; note - since October 1994 elections, some members of the Assembly have changed their party affiliation; the seating as of January 1997 is as follows:SDSM 61, LP 27, SP 6, PDP 11, NDP 2, PDPA 5, independents 3, other 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us: chief of mission:Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA; chancery:3,050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20,007; telephone:[1] (202) 337 3,063; FAX:[1] (202) 337 3,093
From the us: chief of mission:Ambassador Christopher Robert HILL (18 July 1996); embassy:Ilindenska BB, 9,100 Skopje; mailing address:American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,120 (pouch); telephone:[389] (91) 116-180; FAX:[389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the edges of the red field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Macedonia - Economy 1997
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Economy overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. The economy slowly rebounded in 1996 after years of recession. Continued recovery depends on Macedonia's ability to redevelop trade ties with Greece and Serbia and Montenegro; as well as on Skopje's continued commitment to economic liberalization. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany and other West European nations.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total:591,773 (June 1994); by occupation:manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 38% (1996 est.); note - many employed workers are, in fact, furloughees

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.06 billion; expenditures:$1 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1996 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$900 million (1996 est.); commodities:food, beverage, tobacco 17.0%, machinery and transport equipment 13.3%, other manufactured goods 58%; partners:Bulgaria, other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Italy

Imports: total value:$1.4 billion (1996 est.); commodities:machinery and equipment 19%, chemicals 14%, fuels 12%; partners:other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, Austria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 40.5 (September 1996), 38.8 (December 1995), 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)

Macedonia - Energy 1997
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.22 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,408 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Macedonia - Communication 1997
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: domestic:NA; international:NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Macedonia - Military 1997
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 7 billion denars (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Macedonia - Transportation 1997
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16 (1996 est.)
With paved runways: total:14; 2,438 to 3,047 m:2; under 914 m:12 (1996 est.)
With unpaved runways: total:2; 914 to 1,523 m:2 (1996 est.)

Airports with paved runways: total:14; 2,438 to 3,047 m:2; under 914 m:12 (1996 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways: total:2; 914 to 1,523 m:2 (1996 est.)


Pipelines: 0 km

Railways: total:699 km; standard gauge:699 km 1.435-m gauge (232 km electrified) (1995)


Waterways: none, lake transport only

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Macedonia - Transnational issues 1997
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Disputes international: dispute with Greece over name; in September 1995, Skopje and Athens signed an interim accord resolving their dispute over symbols and certain constitutional provisions; Athens also lifted its economic embargo on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs and representation in government

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine


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