Moldova 1997Moldova

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Moldova - Introduction 1997
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.

Moldova - Geography 1997
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Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Total: 33,700 km²
Land: 33,700 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries
Total: 1,389 km
Border countries: (2) Romania 450 km; , Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Extremes lowest point: Nistru River 2 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Balaneshty 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 53%
Permanent crops: 14%
Permanent pastures: 13%
Forests and woodland: 13%
Other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Moldova - People 1997
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Population: 4,457,206 (July 1997 est.)
Growth rate: -0.02% (1997 est.)

Noun: Moldovan(s)
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
Note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Nistru region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)
Note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 26% (male 580,839; female 560,784)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,384,380; female 1,503,831)
65 years and over: 9% (male 158,886; female 268,486) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.32 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.33 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.15 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 43.9 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.25 years
Male: 59.46 years
Female: 69.29 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: 99%
Female: 94% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Moldova - Government 1997
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: none
Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new constitution of 1994

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and OSCE documents

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Petru LUCINSCHI (since 15 January 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ion CIUBUC (since 15 January 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA April 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 17 November 1996; runoff election 1 December 1996 (next to be held NA November 2000); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament
Election results: Petru LUCINSCHI ran against Mircea SNEGUR and was elected president; percent of vote - LUCINSCHI 54%, SNEGUR 46%; Prime Minister Ion CIUBU was appointed by the president 15 January 1997 and was elected by a parliamentary vote of 75-15 on 24 January 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (104 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA February 1998)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDAM 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, FPCDM 9; note - seats as of June-July 1995 were as follows:PDAM 45, PSM/UN 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, PRCM 11, FPCDM 9
Note: the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU
In the us chancery: 2,101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John Todd STEWART
From the us embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevicie #103, Chisinau 277,014
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,080
From the us telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72, RNX (plus extension)
From the us FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Moldova - Economy 1997
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Moldovan Government has recently been making progress on an ambitious economic reform agenda, and the IMF has called Moldova a model for the region. As part of its reform efforts, Moldova introduced a stable convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed their steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. With the election of President LUCINSCHI in December 1996, it is unclear how rapidly the reforms will be pushed.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 48%
Industry: 28%
Services: 24% (1994)

Agriculture products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; meat, milk

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force
Total: 2.03 million (January 1994)
By occupation agriculture: 39.5%
By occupation industry: 12.0%
By occupation other: 48.5% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.4% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (January 1996)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $570 million
Expenditures: $645 million, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Total value: $775 million (1996)
Commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery
Partners: Russia, Kazakstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Total value: $1.048 billion (1996)
Commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer durables
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $950.7 million (of which $240 million to Russia) (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (MLD) per US$1 (end of period) - 4.6870 (January 1997), 4.6743 (1996), 4.4990 (1995), 4.2700 (1994), 3.6400 (1993), 0.4145 (1992; period average - 4.6121 (August 1996), 4.4958 (1995)

Moldova - Energy 1997
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.4 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 324 kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Moldova - Communication 1997
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000 unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991 est.); in early 1997, Chisinau was considering privatizing its state-owned telephone company
Domestic: NA
International: international connections to other former Soviet republics by landline and microwave radio relay through Ukraine and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Moldova - Military 1997
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 203 million lei (1995; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Moldova - Transportation 1997
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26 (1994 est.)
With paved runways total: 8
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 18
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 8
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 18
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)


Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Total: 1,328 km
Broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)


Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Moldova - Transnational issues 1997
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Disputes international: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and Russia

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