Monaco 1997Monaco

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Monaco - Introduction 1997
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Background: Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then the principality's mild climate splendid scenery and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Monaco - Geography 1997
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Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 1.9 km²
Land: 1.9 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 4.4 km
Border countries: (1) France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See; almost entirely urban

Monaco - People 1997
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Population: 31,892 (July 1997 est.)
Growth rate: 0.49% (1997 est.)

Noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
Adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 17% (male 2,731; female 2,671)
15-64 years: 63% (male 9,856; female 10,392)
65 years and over: 20% (male 2,288; female 3,954) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.49% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.01 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.27 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.7 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.24 years
Male: 74.59 years
Female: 82.07 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Monaco - Government 1997
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Country name
Conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
Conventional short form: Monaco
Local long form: Principaute de Monaco
Local short form: Monaco

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier; Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Dependent areas

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
Head of government: Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February 1997)
Cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the prince
Elections: none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; minister of state appointed by the prince from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 24 and 31 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - National and Democratic Union 15, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Monaco does not have an embassy in the US
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us honorary consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
In the us honorary consulates: Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to Monaco

Flag descriptionflag of Monaco: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Monaco - Economy 1997
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Economy overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 55% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture products: none


Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: total:30,540 (1 January 1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $570.4 million
Expenditures: $570.1 million, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169(January 1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992)

Monaco - Energy 1997
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Electricity access

Electricity production: NA kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: NA kWh

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Monaco - Communication 1997
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
Domestic: NA
International: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Monaco - Military 1997
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Monaco - Transportation 1997
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways



Total: 1.7 km
Standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge



Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals

Monaco - Transnational issues 1997
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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