Statistical information Madagascar 1997Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Madagascar in the World

Qatar Airways

Madagascar - Introduction 1997
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule.

Madagascar - Geography 1997
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Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 587,040 km²
Land: 581,540 km²
Water: 5,500 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 41%
Forests and woodland: 40%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Madagascar - People 1997
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Population: 14,061,627 (July 1997 est.)
Growth rate: 2.82% (1997 est.)

Noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
Adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,188,839; female 3,114,958)
15-64 years: 52% (male 3,608,508; female 3,680,574)
65 years and over: 3% (male 228,230; female 240,518) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.82% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.26 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.1 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 92 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 52.53 years
Male: 51.4 years
Female: 53.7 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73% (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Madagascar - Government 1997
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form: Madagascar
Local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Local short form: Madagascar
Former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany; Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA; (since 10 February 1997) note - President Albert ZAFY impeached by the High Constitutional Court on 5 September 1996; Prime Minister Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY served as interim president until the election of President RATSIRAKA and then retired from the office of prime minister
Head of government: Prime Minister Pascal RAKOTOMAVO (since 21 February 1997)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly
Election results: percent of the popular vote for president - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (UNDD) 49.3%; percent of the National Assembly vote for prime minister - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate or Senat (two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled from popularly elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential appointment; members serve four-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (138 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: National Assembly - last held 16 June 1993 (next to be held 3 August 1997)
Election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8
Note: the Senate has never been established because the regional assemblies have not been formed and are not expected to be formed before late in 1997, following a national referendum on a new constitution

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
In the us chancery: 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-5,525, 5,526
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki J. HUDDLESTON
From the us embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
From the us mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
From the us telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
From the us FAX: [261] (2) 234-539

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Madagascar - Economy 1997
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Economy overview: Madagascar suffers from chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 33% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing. Growth in output in 1992-95 averaged only 1.4%, less than half the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 33%
Industry: 15%
Services: 52% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1993 est.)

Labor force
Total: 4.9 million
By occupation agriculture: 45,500 domestic
By occupation service: 15,750
By occupation industry: 26,250
By occupation commerce: 24,500
By occupation construction: 19,250
By occupation transportation: 10,500
By occupation other: 3,500 (1985 est.)
Note: 175,000 workers (3.6% of the total work force) earn money wages; 4,725,000 workers receive no monetary wage (of these, 91% are engaged in subsistence agriculture)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $250 million
Expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Total value: $493 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish, sugar, petroleum products (1995 est.)
Partners: France 41%, US, Japan, Italy (1995)

Total value: $612 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)
Partners: France 40%, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, US (1995)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 3,950 (November 1996), 3,974.9 (August 1996), 4,265.6 (1995), 3,067.3 (1994), 1,913.8 (1993), 1,864.0 (1992)

Madagascar - Energy 1997
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 450 million kWh (1991)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 36 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Madagascar - Communication 1997
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: system is above average for Africa
Domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links
International: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Madagascar - Military 1997
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $29 million (1994)
Percent of gdp: 1% (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Madagascar - Transportation 1997
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 105 (1996 est.)
With paved runways total: 58
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 21
With paved runways under 914 m: 31 (1996 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 47
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 45 (1996 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 58
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 21
Under 914 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 47
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 45 (1996 est.)



Total: 883 km
Narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)


Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine
Total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,624 GRT/28,621 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Ports and terminals

Madagascar - Transnational issues 1997
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Disputes international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin


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