Angola 1998Angola

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Angola - Introduction 1998
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Background: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire between the government and the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when UNITA refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the country. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is generally holding, but military tensions and banditry persist. The peace accord provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the Angolan armed forces and the government. A Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April 1997 and military integration was declared complete in June 1997, although UNITA filled fewer than half of the military positions allocated to the rebels. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996 and all UN military components are scheduled to depart by 30 June 1998 except for a small military observer force which will probably remain in Angola through 1998.

Angola - Geography 1998
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Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 1,246,700 km²
Land: 1,246,700 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 5,198 km
Border countries: (5) Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km; of which 220 km; is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province, Republic of the Congo 201 km; , Namibia 1,376 km; , Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 23%
Forests and woodland: 43%
Other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Angola - People 1998
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Population: 10,864,512 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Noun: Angolan(s)
Adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,471,108; female 2,401,631)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,864,152; female 2,831,209)
65 years and over: 3% (male 137,432; female 158,980) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.58 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.79 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.65 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 132.44 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 47.86 years
Male: 45.6 years
Female: 50.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 42%
Male: 56%
Female: 28% (1998 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Angola - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Angola
Conventional short form: Angola
Local long form: Republica de Angola
Local short form: Angola
Former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular_provincia; Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979): ead of
Government: Prime Minister Fernando Franca VAN DUNEM (since 8 June 1996)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president and answerable to the Assembly
Election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
Election results: percent of vote by party_MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party_NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
In the us chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
In the us fax: [1] (202) 785-1258
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG
From the us embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
From the us mailing address: International mail:Caixa Postal 6,484, Luanda; Pouch:American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-2,550
From the us telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
From the us fax: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag descriptionflag of Angola: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Angola - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of more than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources_gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and large oil deposits_Angola will need to implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production and higher oil prices.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 12%
Industry: 56%
Services: 32% (1994 est.)

Agriculture products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force
Total: 2.783 million economically active
By occupation agriculture: 85%
By occupation industry and services: 15% (1997est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $928 million
Expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Partners: US 70%, EU

Imports: total value:$1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
Commodoties: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing; substantial military supplies
Partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1_265,000 (August 1997), 201,994 (November 1996)
Note: the exchange rate is set by the National Bank of Angola (BNA); adjusted by BNA on 19 July 1997 at 265,000 kwanzas per US$1; black market rate was then 360,000 kwanzas per US$1

Angola - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 18.62 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 185 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Angola - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
Domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Angola - Military 1998
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Angola - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 252 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 32
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 220
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Total: 32
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 220
Over 3047 m: 1


Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Total: 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still in place from the civil war (1997 est.)
Narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge


Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 9, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Angola - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states


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