Brunei 1998Brunei

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Brunei
Brunei 

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Brunei - Introduction 1998
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Background: Although greatly reduced in size since its heyday of the 16th century the Sultanate of Brunei sits atop extensive petroleum and natural gas fields the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries.


Brunei - Geography 1998
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total: 5,770 km²
Land: 5,270 km²
Water: 500 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries
Total: 381 km
Border countries: (1) Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 85%
Other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Geography
Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia


Brunei - People 1998
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Population: 315,292 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 2.44% (1998 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Bruneian(s)
Adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 33% (male 53,219; female 50,906)
15-64 years: 63% (male 103,949; female 93,370)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,569; female 6,279) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.92 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.61 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International agreements party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.21 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 23.3 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.69 years
Male: 70.17 years
Female: 73.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.2%
Male: 92.6%
Female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Brunei - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Conventional short form: Brunei

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular_daerah; Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note_the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government: ead of
Government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note_the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the sultan; deals with executive matters
Note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
Elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
Elections: last held in March 1962
Note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam
In the us chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2,600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
In the us fax: [1] (202) 342-0158
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
From the us embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP 96,440
From the us telephone: [673] (2) 229,670
From the us fax: [673] (2) 225,293

Flag descriptionflag of Brunei: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Brunei - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 46%
Services: 49% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Labor force
Total: 144,000 (1995 est.); note_includes foreign workers and military personnel
By occupation government: 48%
By occupation productionofoil naturalgas services and construction: 42%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 4%
By occupation other: 6% (1986est.)
Note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $2.5 billion
Expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768 million (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
Partners: ASEAN 31%, Japan 27%, South Korea 26%, UK, Taiwan (1996 est.)

Imports: total value:$2.65 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $0

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1: 1.7533 (January 1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993; note_the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar


Brunei - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.26 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,311 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Brunei - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
Domestic: NA
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Brunei - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $312 million (1994)
Percent of gdp: 6.2% (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Brunei - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
Over 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1
914 to 1523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Railways
Total: 13 km (private line)
Narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Roadways

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Merchant marine: total:7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals


Brunei - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; possibly involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Tiqets


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