Burkina Faso 1998Burkina%20Faso

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Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso 


Burkina Faso - Introduction 1998
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Background: Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and 1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.

Burkina Faso - Geography 1998
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Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 274,200 km²
Land: 273,800 km²
Water: 400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries
Total: 3,192 km
Border countries: (6) Benin 306 km; , Ghana 548 km; , Cote d'Ivoire 584 km; , Mali 1,000 km; , Niger 628 km; , Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast

Extremes lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
Extremes highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 13%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 22%
Forests and woodland: 50%
Other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Note: landlocked

Burkina Faso - People 1998
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Population: 11,266,393 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 2.72% (1998 est.)

Noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,721,564; female 2,687,770)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,616,375; female 2,899,923)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,195; female 194,566) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.24 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.65 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.41 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 109.15 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 46.1 years
Male: 45.38 years
Female: 46.85 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.64 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 19.2%
Male: 29.5%
Female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Burkina Faso - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Burkina Faso
Former: Upper Volta

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Note: there may be a new administrative structure of 45 provinces (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo, Zoundweogo)

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987): ead of
Government: Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6 February 1996)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; the number of terms which a president may serve is not limited; election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
Election results: Blaise COMPAORE elected president with 90.4% percent of the votes of those who voted (the abstention rate was 74.7%)

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (ADP) (111 seats; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (120 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms)
Elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_CDP 101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Bruno Nongoma ZIDOUEMBA
In the us chancery: 2,340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-5,577, 6,895
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON (16 July 1996)
From the us embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
From the us mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
From the us telephone: [226] 306,723 through 306,726
From the us fax: [226] 303,890

Flag descriptionflag of Burkina%20Faso: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Burkina Faso - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. Over 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 32%
Industry: 26%
Services: 42% (1995)

Agriculture products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture)
By occupation agriculture: 80%
By occupation industry: 15%
By occupation commerce services and government: 5%
Note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $277 million
Expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233 million (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$298 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
Commodoties: cotton, animal products, gold
Partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Mali

Imports: total value:$500 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, food products, petroleum
Partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $715 million (December 1996)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1_608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993)
Note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Burkina Faso - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 220 million kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 21 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Burkina Faso - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: all services only fair
Domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations
International: satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Burkina Faso - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $104 million (1994)
Percent of gdp: 6.4% (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Burkina Faso - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 33 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 2
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 31
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 2
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 31
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)



Total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
Narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)



Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Burkina Faso - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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