Ghana 1998Ghana

 Ghana | | | | | |
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Ghana - Introduction 1998
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Background: Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution restoring multiparty politics was approved in 1992.

Ghana - Geography 1998
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries


Maritime claims




Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 7%
Permanent pastures: 22%
Forests and woodland: 35%
Other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts

Note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

Ghana - People 1998
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Population: 18,497,206 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 2.13% (1998 est.)

Noun: Ghanaian(s)
Adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups: black African 99.8% (major tribes_Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 43% (male 3,985,219; female 3,947,640)
15-64 years: 54% (male 4,905,442; female 5,077,521)
65 years and over: 3% (male 275,192; female 306,192) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.81 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.63 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 77.53 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 56.82 years
Male: 54.77 years
Female: 58.92 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.27 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 64.5%
Male: 75.9%
Female: 53.5% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ghana - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
Conventional short form: Ghana
Former: Gold Coast

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government: ead of
Government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by the Parliament
Elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
Election results: Jerry John RAWLINGS elected president; percent of vote_RAWLINGS 57%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA December 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_NDC 133, NPP 61, PCP 5, PNC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kobena KOOMSON
In the us chancery: 3,512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 686-4,520
In the us fax: [1] (202) 686-4,527
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Edward BRYNN
From the us embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
From the us telephone: [233] (21) 775,348
From the us fax: [233] (21) 776,008

Flag descriptionflag of Ghana: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ghana - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 41% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. In 1995-97, Ghana made mixed progress under a three-year structural adjustment program in cooperation with the IMF. On the minus side, public sector wage increases and regional peacekeeping commitments have led to continued inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and rising public discontent with Ghana's austerity measures.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 41%
Industry: 14%
Services: 45% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force
Total: NA
By occupation agriculture and fishing: 61%
By occupation industry: 10%
By occupation services: 29% (1996 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.39 billion
Expenditures: $1.47 billion, including capital expenditures of $370 million (1996 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$1.57 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodoties: gold 39%, cocoa 35%, timber 9.4%, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, and diamonds (1996 est.)
Partners: UK, Germany, US, Netherlands, Japan, Nigeria

Imports: total value:$1.84 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
Commodoties: capital equipment, petroleum, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods
Partners: UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.2 billion (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1_2,271.70 (January 1998), 2,050.17 (1997), 1,637.23 (1996), 1,200.43 (1995), 956.71 (1994), 649.06 (1993)

Ghana - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 600 million kWh (1996)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 373 kWh (1996)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ghana - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: poor to fair system
Domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ghana - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $30 million (1994)
Percent of gdp: 0.8% (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ghana - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 12 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 6
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)


Pipelines: 0 km

Total: 953 km (undergoing major rehabilitation)
Narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (32 km double track) (1997 est.)


Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,037 GRT/22,747 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Ghana - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US

Crystal Travel

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