Indonesia 1998Indonesia

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Indonesia - Introduction 1998
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Background: Indonesia declared its independence in 1945 from the Netherlands, a claim disputed, then recognized by the Dutch in 1949. In 1975 Indonesian troops occupied Portuguese East Timor. Current issues include implementing IMF-mandated reforms (particularly restructuring and recapitalizing the insolvent banking sector), effecting a transition to a popularly elected government, addressing longstanding grievances over the role of the ethnic Chinese business class and charges of cronyism and corruption, alleged human rights violations by the military, the role of the military and religion in politics, and growing pressures for some form of independence or autonomy by Aceh, Irian Jaya, and East Timor.

Indonesia - Geography 1998
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Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 1,919,440 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²
Water: 93,000 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,602 km
Border countries: (2) Malaysia 1,782 km; , Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 7%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 62%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes

Note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited; straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Indonesia - People 1998
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Population: 212,941,810 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Noun: Indonesian(s)
Adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 31% (male 33,311,867; female 32,361,468)
15-64 years: 65% (male 69,215,722; female 69,578,527)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,744,314; female 4,729,912) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.1 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.22 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59.23 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 62.49 years
Male: 60.28 years
Female: 64.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.8%
Male: 89.6%
Female: 78% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form: Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular_propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular_daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota; Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
Note: on 21 May 1998_less than three months after being reelected to a seventh five-year term_President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO resigned from office; immediately following his resignation he announced that Vice President HABIBIE would assume the presidency for the remainder of the term which expires in 2003; on 28 May 1998, HABIBIE and legislative leaders announced an agreement to hold a new presidential election in 1999
Chief of state: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March 1998); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government: ead of
Government: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March 1998); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet
Elections: president and vice president elected by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 10 March 1998 (next to be held NA 1999)
Election results: Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO elected president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly; Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE elected vice president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly; note_Vice President HABIBIE assumed the presidency after SOEHARTO's resignation

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 425 elected by popular vote, 75 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 29 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party_Golkar 74.5%, PPP 22.43%, PDI 3.07%; seats by party_Golkar 325, PPP 89, PDI 11
Note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador DORODJATUN Kuntoro-Jakti
In the us chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 775-5,200
In the us fax: [1] (202) 775-5,365
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
From the us embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
From the us mailing address: Box 1, APO AP 96,520
From the us telephone: [62] (21) 344-2,211
From the us fax: [62] (21) 386-2,259
From the us consulates general: Surabaya

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: While Indonesia was long touted for its sound macroeconomic management and spectacular growth, the Asian financial crisis in 1997/98 revealed the weak underpinnings of the economy:an unhealthy banking sector, untenable levels of private foreign debt, and uncompetitive practices that favored the financial interests of former President SOEHARTO's family and friends. Indonesia sought IMF assistance early in the crisis and eventually brokered a $42 billion bailout package; but Jakarta jeopardized the program by resisting strict IMF reforms, partly in response to the rupiah's collapse, which lost as much as 80% of its value at one point. Economic prospects look bleak for 1998:the economy probably will shrink between 4% to 10%, unemployment top historic highs_in excess of 15%_and inflation move toward hyper levels.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 16%
Industry: 43%
Services: 41% (1996)

Agriculture products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force
Total: 67 million
By occupation agriculture: 44%
By occupation manufacturing: 13%
By occupation construction: 5%
By occupation transport and communications: 4%
By occupation other: 34% (1995 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployment 50% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $42.8 billion
Expenditures: $42.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.4 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$53.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Commodoties: textiles/garments 20.6%, wood products 15.7%, electronics 9.9%, footwear 6.1%
Partners: Japan 27.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.3%, South Korea 6.4%, Taiwan 3.9%, China 3.8%, Hong Kong 3.6% (1995)

Imports: total value:$41.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Commodoties: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%, fuels 7.7%
Partners: Japan 22.7%, US 11.7%, Germany 6.9%, South Korea 6.0%, Singapore 5.8%, Australia 5.0%, Taiwan 4.5% (1995)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $136 billion (yearend 1997 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1_8,000 (April 1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993)

Indonesia - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 60.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 297 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
Domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY97/98)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (FY97/98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 442 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 124
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 40
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 41
With paved runways under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 318
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 281 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 124
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 40
914 to 1523 m: 41
Under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 318
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 281 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Total: 6,458 km
Narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)


Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine
Total: 503 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,433,857 GRT/3,510,818 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 291, chemical tanker 8, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 105, passenger 8, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 10, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 5 (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

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