Peru 1998Peru

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Peru - Introduction 1998
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.

Peru - Geography 1998
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Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1.28 million km²
Water: 5,220 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 6,940 km
Border countries: (5) Bolivia 900 km; , Brazil 1,560 km; , Chile 160 km; , Colombia 2,900 km; , Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 66%
Other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

Peru - People 1998
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Population: 26,111,110 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 1.97% (1998 est.)

Noun: Peruvian(s)
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Religions: Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 36% (male 4,745,363; female 4,589,017)
15-64 years: 60% (male 7,856,414; female 7,752,085)
65 years and over: 4% (male 535,566; female 632,665) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.69 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.15 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 43.42 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.97 years
Male: 67.78 years
Female: 72.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.7%
Male: 94.5%
Female: 83% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Peru - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru

Government type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular_departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government: ead of
Government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
Election results: President FUJIMORI reelected; percent of vote_Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, 11 other parties 33.9%; seats by party, when installed on 28 July 1995_C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, other parties 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA MENDOZA
In the us chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 833-9,860 through 9,869
In the us fax: [1] (202) 659-8,124
In the us consulates general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis C. JETT
From the us embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34,031-5,000
From the us telephone: [51] (1) 434-3,000
From the us fax: [51] (1) 434-3,037

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Peru - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s, the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 7% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995. Growth slowed to about 2.8% in 1996 as the government adopted tight fiscal and monetary policy to reduce the current account deficit and meet its IMF targets. Growth then rebounded to 7.3% in 1997 even as inflation fell to its lowest level in 23 years. Capital inflows surged to record levels in early 1997 and have remained strong despite economic shocks stemming from the Asian financial crisis and the El Nino weather events.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.3% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 41%
Services: 45% (1996)

Agriculture products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1996)

Labor force
Total: 7.6 million (1996 est.)
By occupation government and other services: 44%
By occupation agriculture: 37%
By occupation industry: 19% (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.2%; extensive underemployment (1996)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $8.5 billion
Expenditures: $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
Commodoties: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
Partners: US 20%, Japan 7%, UK 7%, China 7%, Germany 5% (1996)

Imports: total value:$9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 31%, Colombia 7%, Chile 6%, Venezuela 6%, UK 6% (1996)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $25.7 billion (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1_2.750 (January 1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993)

Peru - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 15.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 648 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Peru - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements
Domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Peru - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $998 million (1996; note_may not include off-budget purchases related to military modernization program
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (1996)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Peru - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 244 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 43
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 201
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 24
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 73
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 43
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 201
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 24
914 to 1523 m: 73
Under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Total: 2,041 km
Standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 315 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)


Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine
Total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,752 GRT/100,213 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7 (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Peru - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 40%, from 115,300 hectares in 1995 to 68,800 hectares at the end of 1997; source of supply for most of the world's cocaine base; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing

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