Slovakia 1998Slovakia

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Slovakia - Introduction 1998
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Background: After centuries under foreign rule, mainly by Hungary, the Slovaks joined with their neighbors to form the new nation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989, and Czechoslovakia once more was an independent country turning toward the West. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia has experienced more difficulty than the Czech Republic in developing a modern market economy.

Slovakia - Geography 1998
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Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 48,845 km²
Land: 48,800 km²
Water: 45 km²
Comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries
Total: 1,355 km
Border countries: (5) Austria 91 km; , Czech Republic 215 km; , Hungary 515 km; , Poland 444 km; , Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Extremes lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
Extremes highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 31%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 17%
Forests and woodland: 41%
Other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Slovakia - People 1998
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Population: 5,392,982 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 0.08% (1998 est.)

Noun: Slovak(s)
Adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.7%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or more), Czech 1%, Ruthenian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.3%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21% (male 570,515; female 546,088)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,819,831; female 1,845,800)
65 years and over: 11% (male 235,926; female 374,822) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.96 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.48 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.33 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 9.73 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.19 years
Male: 69.41 years
Female: 77.15 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Slovakia - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Slovak Republic
Conventional short form: Slovakia
Local long form: Slovenska Republika
Local short form: Slovensko

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 departments (kraje, singular_kraj; Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Slovak Constitution Day, 1 September (1992; Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, 29 August (1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Michal KOVAC (since 2 March 1993); note_leaves office 2 March 1998; first round of voting for his replacement occurred 29 January 1998: ead of
Government: Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since 12 December 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by National Council for a five-year term; election last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held March 1998); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
Election results: Michal KOVAC elected president; percent of parliamentary vote_NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovensky Repubiky (150 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 30 September-1 October 1994 (next to be held 26-27 September 1998)
Election results: percent of vote by party_HZDS 35%, SDL 10.4%, Hungarian coalition (Hungarian Christian Democrats, Hungarian Civic Party, Coexistence) 10.2%, KDH 10.1%, DU 8.6%, ZRS 7.3%, SNS 5.4%; seats by party_governing coalition 83 (HZDS 61, ZRS 13, SNS 9), opposition 67 (SDL 18, Hungarian coalition 17, KDH 17, DU 15)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Parliament; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Branislav LICHARDUS
In the us chancery: (temporary) Suite 250, 2,201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 965-5,161
In the us fax: [1] (202) 965-5,166
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph R. JOHNSON
From the us embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81,102 Bratislava
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [42] (7) 533-0861, 533-3,338
From the us fax: [42] (7) 533-5,439

Flag descriptionflag of Slovakia: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Slovakia - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: Since the establishment of the Slovak Republic on 1 January 1993, Slovakia has continued the difficult transformation from a centrally controlled economy to a modern market-oriented economy. Macroeconomic performance improved steadily in 1994-96, but privatization progressed only in fits and starts. Strong export performance boosted GDP growth to 4.9% in 1994 after a four-year decline. GDP then rose by 6.8% in 1995, 7% in 1996, and 5.9% in 1997, rates among the highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Inflation dropped from 26% in 1993 to 6% annually in 1996-97, the lowest rate in the region. Private activity now makes up more than two-thirds of GDP. Although Slovak economic performance continues to be impressive, many warning signs of possible danger ahead have been raised. Aggregate demand has surged in the form of increased personal and government consumption. At the same time that the budget deficit is growing, the money supply has been rapidly increasing, which could apply upward pressure on inflation. The trade and current account deficits both are mounting as imports soar and exports sag. Perhaps most troubling, Slovakia continues to have difficulty attracting foreign investment because of perceived political problems and halting progress on restructuring and privatization. Continuing economic recovery in western Europe should boost exports and production, but Slovakia's position with foreign creditors and investors could suffer setbacks in 1998 if progress on privatization and restructuring stalls and if domestic political problems continue to tarnish its international image.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.9% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5.2%
Industry: 39.4%
Services: 55.4% (1996)

Agriculture products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; hogs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, and nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996)

Labor force
Total: 2.352 million
By occupation industry: 29.3%
By occupation agriculture: 8.9%
By occupation construction: 8.0%
By occupation transportandcommunication: 8.2%
By occupation services: 45.6% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $5.7 billion
Expenditures: $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1996)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$8.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment 22.8%; chemicals 12.2%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 11.9%; raw materials 4.4% (1996)
Partners: EU 41.3% (Germany 20.9%, Austria 6.0%), Czech Republic 30.6%, FSU 7.1% (1996)

Imports: total value:$11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment 35.4%; fuels 17.0%; intermediate manufactured goods 15.5%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.0% (1996)
Partners: EU 36.9% (Germany 14.7%, Italy 6.0%), Czech Republic 24.8%, FSU 17.7% (1996)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9.5 billion (1997 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: koruny (Sk) per US$1_35.50 (January 1998), 33.616 (1997), 30.654 (1996), 29.713 (1995), 32.045 (1994), 30.770 (1993)

Slovakia - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 23.223 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,698 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Slovakia - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Slovakia - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $423 million (1996)
Percent of gdp: 2.7% (1996)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Slovakia - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 13 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 8
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 5
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 8
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 5
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)


Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Total: 3,665 km
Broad gauge: 107 km 1.520-m gauge
Standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1424 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1996)


Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Merchant marine: total:3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517 DWT (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Slovakia - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary (to be resolved March 1998; unresolved property issues with Czech Republic over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal property

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: minor, but increasing, transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish bound for Western Europe


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