Sweden 1998Sweden

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Sweden - Introduction 1998
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Background: Having long lost its military prowess of the 17th century, Sweden has evolved into a prosperous and peaceful constitutional monarchy with a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements. As the 20th century comes to an end, this long successful formula is being undermined by high unemployment; the rising cost of a "cradle to the grave" welfare state; the decline of Sweden's competitive position in world markets; and indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe.

Sweden - Geography 1998
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Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 449,964 km²
Land: 410,928 km²
Water: 39,036 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries
Total: 2,205 km
Border countries: (2) Finland 586 km; , Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
Territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 68%
Other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

Sweden - People 1998
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Population: 8,886,738 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 0.26% (1998 est.)

Noun: Swede(s)
Adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign-born or first-generation immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Languages: Swedish
Note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19% (male 852,520; female 808,600)
15-64 years: 64% (male 2,885,783; female 2,792,964)
65 years and over: 17% (male 653,631; female 893,240) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.7 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.69 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 3.93 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.19 years
Male: 76.52 years
Female: 82 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99% (1979 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Sweden - Government 1998
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
Conventional short form: Sweden
Local long form: Konungariket Sverige
Local short form: Sverige

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural; Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 June 1523, Gustav VASA was elected king; 6 June 1809, a constitutional monarchy was established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the king (born 14 July 1977): ead of
Government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
Elections: the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister elected by the Parliament; election last held NA March 1996 (next to be held NA 1998)
Election results: Goran PERSSON elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 183 votes out of 349

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 18 September 1994 (next to be held 20 September 1998)
Election results: percent of vote by party_Social Democrats 45.4%, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals 7.2%, Left Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New Democracy Party 1.2%; seats by party_Social Democrats 162, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22, Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note_the New Democracy Party did not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.0% of votes for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen, judges are appointed by the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rolf EKEUS
In the us chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005-1702
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 467-2,600
In the us fax: [1] (202) 467-2,699
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Lyndon Lowell OLSON, Jr.
From the us embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
From the us fax: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag descriptionflag of Sweden: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Sweden - Economy 1998
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Economy overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by budgetary difficulties, inflation, high unemployment, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets. To curb the budget deficit and bolster confidence in the economy, the government adopted an adjustment program in November 1994 that aims to eliminate the government budget deficit and to stabilize the debt to GDP ratio. Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined at the start of 1995. Sweden has decided not to join the EMU (European Monetary Union). Annual GDP growth should edge up to 2.5% in 1998-99.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2%
Industry: 27%
Services: 71% (1993)

Agriculture products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1996)

Labor force
Total: 4.552 million (84% unionized, 1992)
By occupation community socialandpersonalservices: 38.3%
By occupation mining and manufacturing: 21.2%
By occupation commerce hotels andrestaurants: 14.1%
By occupation banking insurance: 9.0%
By occupation communications: 7.2%
By occupation construction: 7.0%
By occupation agriculture fishing andforestry: 3.2% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.6% plus about 5% in training programs (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $109.4 billion
Expenditures: $146.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (FY95/96)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 January_31 December (Sweden changed its fiscal year from 1 July - 30 June in 1995)

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$84.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
Commodoties: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
Partners: EU 59.1% (Germany 13.2%, UK 10.2%, Denmark 6.9%, France 5.1%), Norway 8.1%, Finland 4.8%, US 8.0% (1994)

Imports: total value:$66.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
Commodoties: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
Partners: EU 62.6% (Germany 18.4%, UK 9.5%, Denmark 6.6%, France 5.5%), Finland 6.3%, Norway 6.1%, US 8.5% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1_8.0085 (January 1998), 7.6349 (1997), 6.7060 (1996), 7.1333 (1995), 7.7160 (1994), 7.7834 (1993)

Sweden - Energy 1998
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 142.913 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 15,996 kWh (1995)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Sweden - Communication 1998
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
Domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional telephone channels
International: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Sweden - Military 1998
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $5.8 billion (FY94/95)
Percent of gdp: 2.5% (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Sweden - Transportation 1998
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 255 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 145
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 83
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 27
With paved runways under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 110
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 105 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 145
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 83
914 to 1523 m: 27
Under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 110
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 105 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Total: 11,837 km (includes 1,955 km of privately-owned railways)
Standard gauge: 11,837 km 1.435-m gauge (7,317 km electrified and 1,152 km double track) (1996)


Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Merchant marine
Total: 164 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,036,831 GRT/1,919,367 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 33, chemical tanker 27, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 29, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 12 (1997 est.)

Ports and terminals

Sweden - Transnational issues 1998
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for and consumer of narcotics shipped via the CIS and Baltic states; increasing consumer of European amphetamines

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