Turkey 1998Turkey

 Turkey | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Turkey - Introduction 1998
top of page

Background: the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace

Turkey - Geography 1998
top of page

Location: southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Total: 780,580 km²
Land: 770,760 km²
Water: 9,820 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,627 km
Border countries: (8) Armenia 268 km; , Azerbaijan 9 km; , Bulgaria 240 km; , Georgia 252 km; , Greece 206 km; , Iran 499 km; , Iraq 331 km; , Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only_to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea,; 12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 4%
Permanent pastures: 16%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

Turkey - People 1998
top of page

Population: 64,566,511 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

Noun: Turk(s)
Adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 31% (male 10,165,804; female 9,802,232)
15-64 years: 63% (male 20,790,422; female 20,106,320)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,706,939; female 1,994,794) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.38 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 38.27 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.82 years
Male: 70.38 years
Female: 75.39 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 82.3%
Male: 91.7%
Female: 72.4% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Turkey - Government 1998
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkiye

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 80 provinces (iller, singular_il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Note: Karabuk, Kilis, Osmaniye and Yalova are the four newest provinces; the US Board on Geographic Names is awaiting an official Turkish administrative map for verification of the boundaries

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993): ead of
Government: Prime Minister Mesut YILMAZ (since 12 July 1997) and Deputy Prime Ministers Bulent ECEVIT (since 12 July 1997) and Ismet SEZGIN (since 12 July 1997)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
Note: there is also a National Security Council that serves as an advisory body to the president and the cabinet
Elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 16 May 1993 (next scheduled to be held NA 2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Suleyman DEMIREL elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54%

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held by December 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_RP 21.38%, DYP 19.18%, ANAP 19.65%, DSP 14.64%, CHP 10.71%, independent 0.48%; seats by party_RP 158, DYP 135, ANAP 133, DSP 75, CHP 49; note_seats held by various parties are subject to change due to defections, creation of new parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies; seating by party as of 4 May 1998:FP 142, ANAP 139, DYP 92, DSP 62, CHP 56, DTP 22, BBP 8, MHP 2, DP 1, DEPAR 1, independents 16, vacant 9

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president; Court of Appeals, judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Baki ILKIN
In the us chancery: 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 659-8,200
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mark PARRIS
From the us embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
From the us mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5,000, APO AE 9,823
From the us telephone: [90] (312) 468-6,110
From the us fax: [90] (312) 467-0019
From the us consulates general: Istanbul
From the us consulates: Adana

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Turkey - Economy 1998
top of page

Economy overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with traditional village agriculture and crafts. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. Its most important industry_and the largest source of exports_is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. The current economic situation is marked by strong growth coupled with serious imbalances. Real GDP expanded by about 7% in 1997 but inflation rose to 99% at yearend, and the public sector fiscal deficit probably remained near 10% of GDP. To some extent, Ankara is caught in a vicious fiscal circle because about half of all central government revenue is going to pay interest on the national debt. The government that took office in July 1997_headed by Prime Minister YILMAZ's Motherland Party_enacted a 1998 budget that includes substantial tax increases and cuts in non-interest spending but these gains will be offset by a jump in interest payments. The government also is planning to overhaul the social welfare and tax systems and to speed up privatization, although these reforms will face tough political opposition. Ankara is trying to increase trade with other countries in the region but most of Turkey's trade is still with OECD countries. Despite the implementation in January 1996 of customs union with the EU, foreign direct investment in the country remains low_about $0.5 billion annually_perhaps because potential investors are concerned about high inflation and the unsettled political situation. Economic growth will slow in 1998 to perhaps 4%, and inflation should decline, although the government's 50% target appears overoptimistic. The current account deficit probably will remain small_1% to 1.5% of GDP - when Turkey's unrecorded "suitcase" exports are included.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.2% (1997)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15%
Industry: 28.4%
Services: 56.6% (1996)

Agriculture products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus; livestock

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (1997 est.)

Labor force
Total: 21.6 million
By occupation agriculture: 43.1%
By occupation services: 30.1%
By occupation industry: 14.4%
By occupation construction: 6.0% (1996)
Note: about 1.5 million Turks work abroad (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.9% another 5.1% officially considered underemployed (April 1997)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $38.5 billion
Expenditures: $52.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.2 billion (1997)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$26 billion (f.o.b., 1997; note_substantial unrecorded exports estimated at $5.8 billion
Commodoties: textiles and apparel 37%, iron and steel products 10%, foodstuffs 17% (1997)
Partners: Germany 20%, US 8%, Russia 8%, UK 6%, Italy 5% (1997)

Imports: total value:$46.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Commodoties: machinery 26%, fuels 13%, raw materials 10%, foodstuffs 4% (1997)
Partners: Germany 16%, Italy 9%, US 9%, France 6%, UK 6% (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $84.5 billion (September 1997)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1_212,500 (January 1998), 151,600 (1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993)

Turkey - Energy 1998
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 103 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,636 kWh (1997)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Turkey - Communication 1998
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems; undergoing modernization and refurbishment programs
Domestic: cable; AMPS standard cellular system in Ashkhabad with plans for expansion
International: 12 satellite earth stations_Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), Eutelsat, and Inmarsat (Indian and Atlantic Ocean regions); 3 submarine fiber-optic cables (1996); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line that became operational in 1998

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Turkey - Military 1998
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.737 billion (1997)
Percent of gdp: 4.3% (1997)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Turkey - Transportation 1998
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 117 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 81
With paved runways over 3047 m: 16
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 25
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 19
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 16
With paved runways under 914 m: 5 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 36
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 9
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 26 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 81
Over 3047 m: 16
2438 to 3047 m: 25
15-24 to 2437 m: 19
914 to 1523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 5 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 36
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 9
Under 914 m: 26 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km

Total: 10,386 km
Standard gauge: 10,386 km 1.435-m gauge (1,088 km electrified)


Waterways: about 1,200 km

Merchant marine
Total: 531 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,913,171 GRT/9,832,994 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 159, cargo 239, chemical tanker 32, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 36, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 3 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Turkey - Transnational issues 1998
top of page

Disputes international: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece; dispute with downstream riparian states (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and_to a far lesser extent the US_via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it