Uzbekistan 1998Uzbekistan

 Uzbekistan | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Uzbekistan - Introduction 1998
top of page

Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1925. During the Soviet era intensive production of 'white gold' (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militant groups from Tajikistan and Afghanistan a non-convertible currency and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Uzbekistan - Geography 1998
top of page

Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Total: 447,400 km²
Land: 425,400 km²
Water: 22,000 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries
Total: 6,221 km
Border countries: (5) Afghanistan 137 km; , Kazakhstan 2,203 km; , Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km; , Tajikistan 1,161 km; , Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Sirdaryo, and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Extremes lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
Extremes highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 9%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 46%
Forests and woodland: 3%
Other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

Uzbekistan - People 1998
top of page

Population: 23,784,321 (July 1998 est.)
Growth rate: 1.33% (1998 est.)

Noun: Uzbekistani(s)
Adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 38% (male 4,591,140; female 4,451,246)
15-64 years: 57% (male 6,755,371; female 6,874,483)
65 years and over: 5% (male 435,036; female 677,045) (July 1998 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.69 births/1000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.68 migrant(s)/1000 population (1998 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 71.04 deaths/1000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.11 years
Male: 60.49 years
Female: 67.91 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 96% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Uzbekistan - Government 1998
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
Conventional short form: Uzbekistan
Local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
Local short form: none
Former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic; effectively authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch and executive power concentrated in the presidency

Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular_wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati, Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet): ead of
Government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995); First Deputy Prime Minister Ismoil JURABEKOV (since NA 1991); Deputy Prime Ministers Viktor CHZHEN (since NA 1994), Bakhtiyor HAMIDOV (since NA 1992), Kayim HAKKULOV (since NA 1991), Dilbar GHOLOMOVA (since NA 1995), Alisher AZIZKHOJAYEV (since NA 1996), Mirabror USMONOV (since NA 1995), Rustam YUNUSOV (since NA 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA January 2000; note_extension of President KARIMOV's term for an additional four years overwhelmingly approved - 99.6% of total vote in favor_by national referendum held 26 March 1995); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Election results: Islom KARIMOV elected president; percent of vote_Islom KARIMOV 86%, Muhammed SOLIH 12%, other 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 25 December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_People's Democratic Party 207, Fatherland Progress Party 12, other 31; note_final runoffs were held 22 January 1995; seating was as follows:People's Democratic Party 69, Fatherland Progress Party 14, Social Democratic Party 47, local government 120
Note: all parties in parliament support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sadyk SAFAYEV
In the us chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 887-5,300, 293-6,801 through 6,803
In the us fax: [1] (202) 293-6,804
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. PRESEL (since November 1997)
From the us embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700,115
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address; Embassy Tashkent, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,110
From the us telephone: [7] (3,712) 77-14-07, 77-10-81, 77-69-86, 77-11-32, 77-12-62
From the us fax: [7] (3,712) 40-63-35

Flag descriptionflag of Uzbekistan: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Uzbekistan - Economy 1998
top of page

Economy overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It was one of the poorest areas of the former Soviet Union with more than 60% of its population living in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government began to reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter monetary policies, expanding privatization, slightly reducing the role of the state in the economy, and improving the environment for foreign investors. Nevertheless, the state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy, and reforms have so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 26%
Industry: 27%
Services: 47% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1996)

Labor force
Total: 8.6 million (1996 est.)
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 44%
By occupation industry and construction: 20%
By occupation other: 36% (1995)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5% plus another 10% underemployed (December 1996 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $N/A, including capital expenditures of $N/A

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$3.8 billion (1996)
Commodoties: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, autos
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Western Europe

Imports: total value:$4.7 billion (1996)
Commodoties: grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other foods
Partners: principally other FSU, Czech Republic, Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.3 billion (of which $510 million to Russia) (1996 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soms (UKS) per US$1_75.8 (September 1997), 41.1 (1996), 30.2 (1995), 11.4 (1994), 1.0 (1993)

Uzbekistan - Energy 1998
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 45.42 billion kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,916 kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Uzbekistan - Communication 1998
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: poorly developed
Domestic: NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent
International: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; new Intelsat links to Tokyo and Ankara give Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian facilities; satellite earth stations_NA Orbita and NA Intelsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Uzbekistan - Military 1998
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 39.2 billion soms (1996; note_conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results
Percent of gdp: 7% (1996)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Uzbekistan - Transportation 1998
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)
With paved runways total: 3
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 3
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)

Total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
Broad gauge: 3,380 km 1.520-m gauge (300 km electrified) (1993)


Waterways: 1,100 (1990)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Uzbekistan - Transnational issues 1998
top of page

Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it