Bermuda 1999Bermuda

 Bermuda | | | | | |
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Undercover Tourist

Bermuda - Introduction 1999
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Background: Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Bermuda has developed into highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Bermuda - Geography 1999
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Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map referenceNorth America

Total: 50 km²
Land: 50 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 94% (1997 est.)
Note: developed (55%) and rural/open space (39%) comprise 94% of Bermudian land area

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

Bermuda - People 1999
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Population: 62,472 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 0.72% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Bermudian(s)
Adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other 34% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20% (male 6,174; female 6,023)
15-64 years: 70% (male 21,479; female 22,041)
65 years and over: 10% (male 2,897; female 3,858) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.72% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 11.83 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.27 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.67 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space
International agreements party to: NA
International agreements signed but not ratified: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 9.27 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.97 years
Male: 75.19 years
Female: 78.83 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 98%
Female: 99% (1970 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bermuda - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Bermuda

Government type: NA

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Dependent areas

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)
Head of government: Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)
Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party_PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%, independents 1%; seats by party_PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none (overseas territory of the UK)
From the us chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
From the us consulates general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
From the us mailing address: P.O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,520-5,300
From the us telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
From the us FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag descriptionflag of Bermuda: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bermuda - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 35,296 (1997)
By occupation clerical: 23%
By occupation services: 22%
By occupation laborers: 17%
By occupation professionalandtechnical: 17%
By occupation administrativeandmanagerial: 12%
By occupation sales: 7%
By occupation agriculture and fishing: 2% (1996)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $504.6 million
Expenditures: $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (FY97/98)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $57 million (1997)
Commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals
Partners: Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports: $617 million (1997)
Commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
Partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 4% (1996 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1: 1.0000 (fixed rate)

Bermuda - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 480 million kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 480 million kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bermuda - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
International: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations_3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bermuda - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bermuda - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine
Total: 97 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,647,576 GRT/7,612,686 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 18, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 20, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 27, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 2
Note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries among which are UK 24, Canada 12, Hong Kong 11, US 11, Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, Norway 3, and Switzerland 2 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Bermuda - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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