Croatia 1999Croatia

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Croatia - Introduction 1999
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Background: In 1918 the Croats Serbs and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II Yugoslavia became an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 it took four years of sporadic but often bitter fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.

Croatia - Geography 1999
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 56,538 km²
Land: 56,410 km²
Water: 128 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 2,197 km
Border countries: (5) Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km; , Hungary 329 km; , Serbia and Montenegro 266 km; (241 km; with Serbia 25 km; with Montenegro), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands

Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 38%
Other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

Croatia - People 1999
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Population: 4,676,865 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Croat(s)
Adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 17% (male 404,761; female 383,088)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,591,831; female 1,591,106)
65 years and over: 15% (male 272,219; female 433,860) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 10.34 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.81 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.84 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74 years
Male: 70.69 years
Female: 77.52 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97%
Male: 99%
Female: 95% (1991 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Croatia - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
Conventional short form: Croatia
Local long form: Republika Hrvatska
Local short form: Hrvatska

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanije, zupanija_singular):Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb
Note: there are two special self-governing districts (kotari, kotar_singular) under local Serb control:Glina, Knin

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
Head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since 7 November 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October 1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK (since November 1995)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of vote_Franjo TUDJMAN 61%, Zdravko TOMAC 21%, Vlado GOTOVAC 18%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House of Counties or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats_63 directly elected by popular vote, 5 appointed by the president; members serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: House of Counties_last held 13 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); House of Representatives_last held 29 October 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
Election results: House of Counties_percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2, SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note_in some districts certain parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of Representatives_percent of vote by party_HDZ 45.23%, HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats by party_HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS (pending member), CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
In the us chancery: 2,343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 588-5,899
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 588-8,936
In the us consulates general: Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
From the us embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
From the us mailing address: use street address
From the us telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00
From the us FAX: [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag descriptionflag of Croatia: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Croatia - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from:the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform efforts_partially macroeconomic stabilization policies_and it has normalized relations with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform. In 1998, Croatia made progress in reducing its current account deficit to about 8% of GDP from 12% the previous year. Economic growth continues to lag, however, and growing levels of inter-enterprise debt plague the domestic economy. Four commercial banks were put under government control and a major conglomerate is teetering on collapse.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 12%
Industry: 24%
Services: 64% (1995 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock, dairy products

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 1.63 million (1998)
By occupation industry and mining: 31.1%
By occupation agriculture: 4.3%
By occupation government: 19.1% (includingeducationandhealth)
By occupation other: 45.5% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18.6% (yearend 1998)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $5.3 billion
Expenditures: $6.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $78.5 million (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7% (1993)
Partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports: $8.4 billion (c.i.f., 1998)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
Partners: Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $8 billion (October 1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1_6.317 (January 1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.157 (1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994)

Croatia - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10.682 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 29.25%
By source hydro: 70.75%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 14.632 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 4.95 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Croatia - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: NA
International: no satellite earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Croatia - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $950 million (1999)
Percent of gdp: 5% (1999)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Croatia - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 72 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 21
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 51
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 42 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 21
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 51
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 42 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992; note_under repair following territorial dispute

Total: 2,296 km
Standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (796 km electrified)
Note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by territorial dispute (1997)


Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris

Merchant marine
Total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 810,226 GRT/1,227,468 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 26, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 5, container 5, liquefied gas 1, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 1, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Croatia - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic Serbs during the ethnic conflict, was returned to Croatian control by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia on 15 January 1998; Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic minority rights; significant progress has been made with Slovenia toward resolving a maritime border dispute over direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

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