Ecuador 1999Ecuador

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Ecuador - Introduction 1999
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Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

Ecuador - Geography 1999
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Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 283,560 km²
Land: 276,840 km²
Water: 6,720 km²
Note: includes Galapagos Islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries
Total: 2,010 km
Border countries: (2) Colombia 590 km; , Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 5%
Permanent pastures: 18%
Forests and woodland: 56%
Other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Ecuador - People 1999
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Population: 12,562,496 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 1.78% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: 35% (1994 est.)

Noun: Ecuadorian(s)
Adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35% (male 2,250,690; female 2,172,302)
15-64 years: 60% (male 3,745,390; female 3,833,841)
65 years and over: 5% (male 261,090; female 299,183) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.78% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.26 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.06 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.55 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 30.69 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.16 years
Male: 69.54 years
Female: 74.9 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90.1%
Male: 92%
Female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ecuador - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form: Ecuador
Local long form: Republica del Ecuador
Local short form: Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular_provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Note: a new province, Orellana, was reported to have been formed in 1998

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jamil MAHUAD (since 10 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo NOBOA (since 10 August 1998); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Jamil MAHUAD (since 10 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo NOBOA (since 10 August 1998); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote_51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly elected by province_two per province_for four-year terms)
Elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note_defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
In the us chancery: 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,200
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 667-3,482
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie M. ALEXANDER
From the us embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
From the us mailing address: APO AA 34,039
From the us telephone: [593] (2) 562-890
From the us FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
From the us consulates general: Guayaquil

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ecuador - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The populist government of Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz proposed a major currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent with BUCARAM'S austerity measures and rampant official corruption led to his replacement by National Congress with Fabian ALARCON in February 1997. ALARCON adopted a minimalist economic program that put off necessary reforms until August 1998 when President Jamil MAHUAD was elected. MAHAUD inherited an economy in crisis due to mismanagement, El Nino damage to key export sectors such as agriculture, and low world commodity prices in the wake of the Asian financial crisis. MAHAUD announced a fiscal austerity package and expressed interest in an IMF agreement but faces major difficulties in promoting economic growth, including possible political objections to further reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 12%
Industry: 37%
Services: 51% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million
By occupation agriculture: 29%
By occupation manufacturing: 18%
By occupation commerce: 15%
By occupation servicesandotheractivities: 38% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November 1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 35% (1994 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: planned $5.1 billion not including revenue from potential privatizations
Expenditures: $5.1 billion (1999)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Commodities: petroleum 30%, bananas 26%, shrimp 16%, cut flowers 2%, fish 1.9%
Partners: US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%, Asia 12%

Imports: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
Commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
Partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $12.5 billion (1997)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1_7,133.1 (January 1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994)

Ecuador - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.45 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 17.16%
By source hydro: 82.84%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 8.45 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ecuador - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
International: satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ecuador - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $720 million (1998)
Percent of gdp: 3.4% (1998)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ecuador - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 183 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 56
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 15
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With paved runways under 914 m: 19 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 127
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 37
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 90 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 56
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 15
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 19 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 127
914 to 1523 m: 37
Under 914 m: 90 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Total: 965 km (single track)
Narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge


Waterways: 1,500 km

Merchant marine
Total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 99,078 GRT/162,423 DWT
Ships by type: chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 17, passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Ecuador - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: on October 26, 1998, Peru and Ecuador concluded treaties on commerce and navigation and on boundary integration, to complete a package of agreements settling the long-standing boundary dispute between them; demarcation of the agreed-upon boundary was scheduled to begin in mid-January 1999

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub


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