El Salvador 1999El%20Salvador

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El Salvador
El Salvador 

Crystal Travel

El Salvador - Introduction 1999
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Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war which cost the lives of some 75,000 people was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

El Salvador - Geography 1999
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Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Total: 21,040 km²
Land: 20,720 km²
Water: 320 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries
Total: 545 km
Border countries: (2) Guatemala 203 km; , Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October; dry season (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 27%
Permanent crops: 8%
Permanent pastures: 29%
Forests and woodland: 5%
Other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

El Salvador - People 1999
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Population: 5,839,079 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 1.53% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: 48.3% (1992 est.)

Noun: Salvadoran(s)
Adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
Note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 37% (male 1,091,500; female 1,044,658)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,612,847; female 1,786,318)
65 years and over: 5% (male 138,052; female 165,704) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.53% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 26.19 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.2 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.66 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes; Hurricane Mitch damage
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 28.38 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.02 years
Male: 66.7 years
Female: 73.5 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.99 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 71.5%
Male: 73.5%
Female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

El Salvador - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
Conventional short form: El Salvador
Local long form: Republica de El Salvador
Local short form: El Salvador

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular_departamento; Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Note: Legislative Assembly passed landmark judicial reforms in 1996

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March 1994, with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held 7 March 1999)
Election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of vote_Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held and the results were as follows_Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
Note: in the election held 7 March 1999, Francisco FLORES elected president, Carlos QUINTANILLA elected vice president (will take office 1 June 1999); percent of vote_Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN/USC) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CD) 8%, other parties 11%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve three-year terms)
Elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%, PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%, other 0.8%; seats by party_ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 9, PDC 8, PRSC 3, CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1, independent 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rene A. LEON
In the us chancery: 2,308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-9,671
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
In the us consulates: Boston
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
From the us embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador
From the us mailing address: Unit 3,116, APO AA 34,023
From the us telephone: [503] 278-4,444
From the us FAX: [503] 278-6,011

Flag descriptionflag of El%20Salvador: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band_it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

El Salvador - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: In recent years inflation has fallen to unprecedented levels, and exports have grown substantially. Even so, El Salvador has experienced sizable deficits in both its trade and its fiscal accounts. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances from the large number of Salvadorans living abroad and from external aid. El Salvador sustained damage from Hurricane Mitch, but not as much as other Central American countries. Inflation and the trade deficit are expected to rise somewhat as a result.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.7% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15%
Industry: 24%
Services: 61% (1997 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.26 million (1997 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 40%
By occupation commerce: 16%
By occupation manufacturing: 15%
By occupation government: 13%
By occupation financialservices: 9%
By occupation transportation: 6%
By occupation other: 1%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 48.3% (1992 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.75 billion
Expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317 million (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.96 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
Commodities: coffee, sugar; shrimp; textiles
Partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
Commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels
Partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (yearend 1997)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period)_8.755 (January 1999-1995), 8.750 (1994)
Note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official receipts and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports; prior to that date, a system of floating was in effect

El Salvador - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.575 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 22.38%
By source hydro: 61.54%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 16.08% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 3.547 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 60 million kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 32 million kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

El Salvador - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
International: satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

El Salvador - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $105 million (1998)
Percent of gdp: 0.9% (1998)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

El Salvador - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 86 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 4
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 82
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 65 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 4
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 82
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 65 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)


Total: 602 km (single track; note_some sections abandoned, unusable, or operating at reduced capacity)
Narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge


Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals

El Salvador - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: demarcation of boundary with Honduras defined by 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision has not been completed; small boundary section left unresolved by ICJ decision not yet reported to have been settled; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption

Volotea Air

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