Falkland Islands 1999Falkland%20Islands

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Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands 

Crystal Travel

Falkland Islands - Introduction 1999
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Background: Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592 the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690 and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute first between Britain and Spain then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.

Falkland Islands - Geography 1999
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Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 12,173 km²
Land: 12,173 km²
Water: 0 km²
Note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 99%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season

Falkland Islands - People 1999
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Population: 2,758 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 2.43% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Falkland Islander(s)
Adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Languages: English

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1000 population

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: NA
International agreements party to: NA
International agreements signed but not ratified: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: NA years
Male: NA years
Female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Falkland Islands - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
Conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Government type: NA

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Dependent areas

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997

Legal system: English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of government: Governor Richard RALPH (since 29 January 1996; to be replaced in May 1999 by Donald LAMONT); Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)
Cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats_8 elected, 2 ex officio; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 9 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2001)
Election results: percent of vote_NA; seats_independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is a nonresident

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
From the us: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Flag descriptionflag of Falkland%20Islands: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Falkland Islands - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products

Industries: wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
By occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $66.1 million
Expenditures: $66.8 million, including capital expenditures of $N/A (FY97/98 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.6 million (1995)
Commodities: wool, hides, meat
Partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports: $24.7 million (1995)
Commodities: fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
Partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (£F) per US$1_0.6057 (January 1999), 0.5037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994; note_the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Falkland Islands - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10 million kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 10 million kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Falkland Islands - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
International: satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Falkland Islands - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Falkland Islands - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 5 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 3
Under 914 m: 3 (1998 est.)



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals

Falkland Islands - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: claimed by Argentina

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

The Fives Hotels

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