Lithuania 1999Lithuania

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Lithuania - Introduction 1999
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Background: Independent between the two World Wars Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. In March of 1990 Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993.

Lithuania - Geography 1999
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Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 65,200 km²
Land: 65,200 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 1,273 km
Border countries: (3) Belarus 502 km; , Latvia 453 km; , Poland 91 km; , Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 35%
Permanent crops: 12%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 31%
Other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


Lithuania - People 1999
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Population: 3,584,966 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: -0.4% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Lithuanian(s)
Adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Byelorussian 1.6%, other 2.1%

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Religions: primarily Roman Catholic, others include Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, evangelical Christian Baptist, Islam, Judaism

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20% (male 365,149; female 350,070)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,156,161; female 1,239,145)
65 years and over: 13% (male 160,963; female 313,478) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.4% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 10.52 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.93 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.58 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14.71 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.96 years
Male: 62.91 years
Female: 75.31 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 98% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Lithuania - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
Conventional short form: Lithuania
Local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
Local short form: Lietuva
Former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular_rajonas) and 11 municipalities*:Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas, Birstonas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Marijampoles Rajonas, Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininku Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Silutes Rajonas, Sirvintu Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traku Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)
Head of government: Premier Gediminas VAGNORIUS (since 28 November 1996)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 and 5 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
Election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote_Valdas ADAMKUS 50.37%, Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.7%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 20 October and 10 November 1996 (next to be held NA October 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_TS 69, LKDP 15, LCS 15, LDDP 12, LSDP 10, DP 2, independents 12, others 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Parliament; Court of Appeal, judges appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Stasys SAKALAUSKAS
In the us chancery: 2,622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-5,860
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
In the us consulates general: Chicago and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Keith C. SMITH
From the us embassy: Akmenu 6, 2,600 Vilnius
From the us mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 9,723
From the us telephone: [370] (2) 223-031
From the us FAX: [370] (6) 706-084

Flag descriptionflag of Lithuania: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Lithuania - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Lithuania has benefited from its disciplined approach to market reform and its adherence to strict fiscal and monetary policies imposed by the IMF, measures that have helped constrain the growth of the money supply, reduce inflation to 5.1%, and support GDP growth of 6% in 1997 and 4.5% in 1998. Foreign direct investment and the privatization program maintained their momentum in 1998. However, the current account deficit has hovered around 8% to 10% of GDP annually since 1995_the result of greater demand for consumer goods and falling growth in exports. Reducing this deficit is the immediate economic challenge for 1999.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.5% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 13%
Industry: 32%
Services: 55% (1997 est.)

Agriculture products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 1.8 million
By occupation industry and construction: 42%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 20%
By occupation other: 38% (1997)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (January 1998)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.5 billion
Expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 19%, mineral products 16%, textiles 15%, chemicals 8%, foodstuffs 8% (1997)
Partners: Russia 24%, Germany 11%, Belarus 10%, Latvia 9%, Ukraine 9% (1997)

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1998)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 30%, mineral products 18%, chemicals 9%, textiles 8%, foodstuffs (1997)
Partners: Russia 24%, Germany 19%, Poland, Denmark, Finland (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: litai per US$1_4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994), 3.978 (1994), 4.344 (1993), 1.773 (1992)

Lithuania - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14.51 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 9.65%
By source hydro: 3.03%
By source nuclear: 87.32%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 9.58 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 5.23 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 300 million kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Lithuania - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: the Ministry of Communications and Informatics, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of Internal Affairs oversee Lithuania's telecommunications; the national operator is Lietuvos Telomas; Internet is available
Domestic: local_three cellular service providers; NMT-450 and GSM standards provide services nationwide; 80% of customers are on the two GSM networks; 157,000 cellular customers; intercity_Lithuania is close to completing its fiber-optic backbone consisting of two small rings inside a larger ring
International: Lithuania has international fiber-optic connectivity to Latvia, Poland, and an undersea fiber-optic cable to Sweden

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Lithuania - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $181 million (1999)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (1999)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Lithuania - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 96 (1994 est.)
With paved runways total: 25
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 14 (1994 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 71
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 25
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 14 (1994 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 71
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Total: 2,002 km
Broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)


Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 316,616 GRT/353,683 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 26, combination bulk 11, oil tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Lithuania - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: ongoing talks over maritime boundary dispute with Latvia (primary concern is oil exploration rights; 1997 border agreement with Russia not yet ratified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia


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