Niger 1999Niger

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Niger
Niger 

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Niger - Introduction 1999
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Background: Not until 1993 33 years after independence from France did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule in December 1999.


Niger - Geography 1999
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Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 1.267 million km²
Land: 1,266,700 km²
Water: 300 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 5,697 km
Border countries: (7) Algeria 956 km; , Benin 266 km; , Burkina Faso 628 km; , Chad 1,175 km; , Libya 354 km; , Mali 821 km; , Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Niger River 200 m
Extremes highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 2%
Other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Geography
Note: landlocked


Niger - People 1999
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Population: 9,962,242 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 2.95% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Nigerien(s)
Adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,445,536; female 2,346,844)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,421,971; female 2,518,248)
65 years and over: 2% (male 121,253; female 108,390) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.95% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 52.31 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 22.78 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 112.79 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 41.96 years
Male: 42.22 years
Female: 41.7 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.24 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 13.6%
Male: 20.9%
Female: 6.6% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Niger - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Niger
Conventional short form: Niger
Local long form: Republique du Niger
Local short form: Niger

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular_departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district; Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January 1996); note_the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January 1996); note_Ibrahim MAYAKI (since 27 November 1997) was appointed prime minister by the president but does not exercise any executive authority and is only the implementor of the president's programs; the president is both chief of state and head of government
Note: President Ibrahim BARE was assasinated on the 9 April 1999
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 7-8 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note_Ibrahim BARE Mainassara initially became president when he ousted President Mahamane OUSMANE in a coup on 27 January 1996 and subsequently defeated him in the flawed election of July 1996
Election results: percent of vote_Ibrahim BARE Mainassara 52.22%, Mahamane OUSMANE 19.75%, Tandja MAMADOU 15.65%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 7.60%, Moumouni AMADOU Djermakoye 4.77%

Legislative branch: two-chamber National Assembly; one chamber with 83 seats (members elected by popular vote for five-year terms); selection process for second chamber not established
Elections: last held 23 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_UNIRD 59, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 8, UDPS-Amana 3, coalition of independents 3, MDP-Alkwali 1, UPDP-Shamuwa 4, DARAJA 3, PMT-Albarka 2

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
In the us chancery: 2,204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,224 through 4,227
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Charles O. CECIL
From the us embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
From the us mailing address: B. P. 11,201, Niamey
From the us telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
From the us FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag descriptionflag of Niger: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Niger - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export since the 1970s. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public investment and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank. Short-term prospects depend largely on upcoming negotiations on debt relief and extended aid.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.5% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 40%
Industry: 18%
Services: 42% (1997)

Agriculture products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries
By occupation agriculture: 90%
By occupation industry and commerce: 6%
By occupation government: 4%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $370 million (including $160 million from foreign sources)
Expenditures: $370 million, including capital expenditures of $186 million (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $269 million (f.o.b., 1997)
Commodities: uranium ore 50%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions (1996 est.)
Partners: Greece 21%, Canada 18%, France 12%, Nigeria 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $295 million (c.i.f., 1997)
Commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Partners: France 17%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%, US 5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 4%, Nigeria (1996 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1_560.01 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)


Niger - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 170 million kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 365 million kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 195 million kWh (1996)
Note: imports electricity from Nigeria

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Niger - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area
Domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Niger - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $20 million (FY96/97)
Percent of gdp: 1.1% (FY96/97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Niger - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 27 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 9
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 6
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 18
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 15
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 6
914 to 1523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 18
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 15
Under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways: 0 km

Roadways

Waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Niger - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: Libya claims about 19,400 km² in northern Niger; delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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