Norway 1999Norway

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Norway - Introduction 1999
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Background: Norway gained its independence from Sweden in 1905. As a separate realm, Norway stayed free of World War I but suffered German occupation in World War II. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s gave a strong boost to Norway's economic fortunes. Norway is planning for the time when its oil and gas reserves are depleted and is focusing on containing spending on its extensive welfare system. It has decided at this time not to join the European Union and the new euro currency regime.

Norway - Geography 1999
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Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 324,220 km²
Land: 307,860 km²
Water: 16,360 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries
Total: 2,515 km
Border countries: (3) Finland 729 km; , Sweden 1,619 km; , Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 10 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Extremes lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Glittertinden 2,472 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: NA%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 27%
Other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 970 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land boundary with Russia

Norway - People 1999
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Population: 4,438,547 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 0.4% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Norwegian(s)
Adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000

Languages: Norwegian (official)
Note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20% (male 447,607; female 423,844)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,462,906; female 1,415,992)
65 years and over: 15% (male 286,339; female 401,859) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.4% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 12.54 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.12 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.62 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.96 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.36 years
Male: 75.55 years
Female: 81.35 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99% (1976 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Norway - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
Conventional short form: Norway
Local long form: Kongeriket Norge
Local short form: Norge

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular_fylke; Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: (3) Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
Head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 15 October 1997)
Cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which, for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held NA September 2001)
Election results: percent of vote by party_Labor 35%, Center Party 7.9%, Conservatives 14.3%, Christian People's 13.7%, Socialist Left 6%, Progress 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%, other parties 1.6%; seats by party_Labor 65, Center Party 11, Conservatives 23, Christian People's 25, Socialist Left 9, Progress 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1
Note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett, justices appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Tom Erik VRAALSON
In the us chancery: 2,720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 333-6,000
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
In the us consulates general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David B. HERMELIN
From the us embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
From the us mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 9,707
From the us telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
From the us FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63

Flag descriptionflag of Norway: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Norway - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Norway is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism. The economy consists of a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises), and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and areas with sparse resources. Norway maintains an extensive welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to more than 50% of GDP and results in one of the highest average tax levels in the world. A major shipping nation, with a high dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of raw materials and semiprocessed goods. The country is richly endowed with natural resources_petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals_and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices. Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than Norway. Norway imports more than half its food needs. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. Economic growth in 1999 should drop to about 1%. Despite their high per capita income and generous welfare benefits, Norwegians worry about that time in the 21st century when the oil and gas run out.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2%
Industry: 30%
Services: 68% (1997)

Agriculture products: oats, other grains; beef, milk; fish

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million (1998 est.)
By occupation services: 71%
By occupation industry: 23%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 6% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (yearend 1997)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $48.6 billion
Expenditures: $53 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $39.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 55%, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish (1997)
Partners: EU 76% (UK 19%, Germany 10%, Netherlands 11%, Sweden 9%, France 8%), US 6% (1997)

Imports: $37.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Partners: EU 68% (Sweden 16%, Germany 14%, UK 9%, Denmark 7%, Netherlands 4%), US 6%, Japan 4% (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: none_Norway is a net external creditor

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1_7.4524 (January 1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996), 6.3352 (1995), 7.0576 (1994)

Norway - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 103.374 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 0.76%
By source hydro: 99.23%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0.01% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 112.374 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 4.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 13.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Norway - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and telex services
Domestic: NA domestic satellite earth stations
International: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations_NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note_Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Norway - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: NA
Percent of gdp: 2.2% (1998)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Norway - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 103 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 66
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 14
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 11
With paved runways under 914 m: 29 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 37
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 32 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 66
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 14
914 to 1523 m: 11
Under 914 m: 29 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 37
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 32 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)

Pipelines: refined petroleum products 53 km

Total: 4,012 km
Standard gauge: 4,012 km 1.435-m gauge (2,422 km electrified; 96 km double track) (1996)


Waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; navigable by 2.4 m draft vessels maximum

Merchant marine
Total: 788 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,200,416 GRT/33,642,888 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 106, cargo 150, chemical tanker 99, combination bulk 8, combination ore/oil 39, container 19, liquefied gas tanker 86, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 143, passenger 12, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 52, short-sea passenger 22, vehicle carrier 36
Note: the government has created an internal register, the Norwegian International Ship register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Norway - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land; Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and Baltic states for the European market; increasing domestic consumption of cannabis and amphetamines


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