Qatar 1999Qatar

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Qatar - Introduction 1999
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Background: During the late 1980s and early 1990s the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown in a bloodless coup by his own son in 1995. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.

Qatar - Geography 1999
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Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries
Total: 60 km
Border countries: (1) Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
Extremes highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: NA%
Permanent pastures: 5%
Forests and woodland: NA%
Other: 94% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

Qatar - People 1999
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Population: 723,542 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 3.62% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Qatari(s)
Adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

Religions: Muslim 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 27% (male 99,232; female 95,421)
15-64 years: 71% (male 367,213; female 145,925)
65 years and over: 2% (male 11,047; female 4,704) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.62% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 16.75 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 3.57 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 23.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.52 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.35 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 17.25 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.23 years
Male: 71.7 years
Female: 76.89 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.42 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 79.4%
Male: 79.2%
Female: 79.9% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Qatar - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Qatar
Conventional short form: Qatar
Local long form: Dawlat Qatar
Local short form: Qatar
Note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular_baladiyah; Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note_Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed by the monarch)
Note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Saad Muhammad al-KUBAYSI
In the us chancery: Suite 200, 4,200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,016
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
In the us consulates general: Houston
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth MCKUNE
From the us embassy: 149 Ahmed Bin Ali St., Fariq Bin Omran (opposite the television station), Doha
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 2,399, Doha
From the us telephone: [974] 864,701 through 864,703
From the us FAX: [974] 861,669
From the us note: work week is Saturday-Wednesday

Flag descriptionflag of Qatar: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Qatar - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 70% of export earnings, and 66% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to the leading West European industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7 trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of off-shore petroleum and the diversification of the economy. Lower world oil prices brought GDP down in 1998.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -3% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1%
Industry: 49%
Services: 50% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1995)

Labor force: 233,000 (1993 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $3.4 billion
Expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (FY98/99 budget est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
Commodities: petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel
Partners: Japan 49%, Singapore 12%, South Korea 12%, Thailand 4%, US 3% (1997)

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
Partners: UK 25%, France 13%, Japan 10%, US 9%, Italy 6% (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $11 billion (1997 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1_3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)

Qatar - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.2 billion kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 5.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Qatar - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: modern system centered in Doha
Domestic: NA
International: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Qatar - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $940 million (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 9.6% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Qatar - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 2
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 2
Over 3047 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine
Total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 713,014 GRT/1,112,829 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 5, oil tanker 5 (1998 est.)

Ports and terminals

Qatar - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands and maritime boundary dispute with Bahrain currently before the International Court of Justice (ICJ; in 1996, agreed with Saudi Arabia to demarcate border per 1992 accord; that process is ongoing

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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