Seychelles 1999Seychelles

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Sightseeing Pass

Seychelles - Introduction 1999
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Background: A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814 when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993.

Seychelles - Geography 1999
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Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 455 km²
Land: 455 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September; warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 13%
Permanent pastures: NA%
Forests and woodland: 11%
Other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible

Note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

Seychelles - People 1999
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Population: 79,164 (July 1999 est.)
Growth rate: 0.65% (1999 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
Adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29% (male 11,712; female 11,569)
15-64 years: 64% (male 24,879; female 26,038)
65 years and over: 7% (male 1,709; female 3,257) (1999 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 19.39 births/1000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.56 deaths/1000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.32 migrant(s)/1000 population (1999 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rain water
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 16.65 deaths/1000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.95 years
Male: 66.61 years
Female: 75.42 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.97 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 58%
Male: 56%
Female: 60% (1971 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Seychelles - Government 1999
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
Conventional short form: Seychelles

Government type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of the constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note_the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
Election results: President France Albert RENE reelected; percent of vote_France Albert RENE (SPPF) 61%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 27%, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 12%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (35 seats_25 elected by popular vote, 10 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least nine percent of the vote; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party (elected)_SPPF 24, DP 1; seats by party (awarded)_SPPF 6, DP 1, UO 3
Note: the 10 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president; Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Claude MOREL
In the us chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10,017
In the us telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
In the us FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag descriptionflag of Seychelles: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Seychelles - Economy 1999
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Economy overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing, which accounted for 70% of GDP in 1996-97. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded, the government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff international competition. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit and further privatization of public enterprises.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.3% (1997 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 4%
Industry: 15%
Services: 81% (1994)

Agriculture products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1992)

Labor force: 26,000 (1996)
By occupation industry: 19%
By occupation services: 57%
By occupation government: 14%
By occupation fishing agriculture andforestry: 10% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $220 million
Expenditures: $241 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $53 million ( f.o.b., 1995)
Commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
Partners: France, UK, China, Germany, Japan (1993)

Imports: $340 million (c.i.f., 1997)
Commodities: manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco, beverages, machinery and transportation equipment
Partners: China, Singapore, South Africa, UK (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $170 million (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1_5.4540 (January 1999), 5.2622 (1998), 5.0263 (1997), 4.9700 (1996), 4.7620 (1995), 5.0559 (1994)

Seychelles - Energy 1999
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 125 million kWh (1996)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1996)

Electricity consumption: 125 million kWh (1996)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Seychelles - Communication 1999
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system
Domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago
International: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Seychelles - Military 1999
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13.7 million (1995)
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Seychelles - Transportation 1999
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14 (1998 est.)
With paved runways total: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 8
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 8
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 4 (1998 est.)



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals

Seychelles - Transnational issues 1999
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Disputes international: claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian Ocean Territory

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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