Georgia 2000Georgia

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Georgia
Georgia 

Volotea Air


Georgia - Introduction 2000
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Background: Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The country continues to move toward a market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.


Georgia - Geography 2000
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Location: Southwestern Asia bordering the Black Sea between Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N 43 30 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation

Natural resources: forests hydropower manganese deposits iron ore copper minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 4,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes

Geography


Georgia - People 2000
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Population: 5,019,538 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.62% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1% Armenian 8.1% Russian 6.3% Azeri 5.7% Ossetian 3% Abkhaz 1.8% other 5%

Languages: Georgian 71% (official) Russian 9% Armenian 7% Azeri 6% other 7%

Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65% Muslim 11% Russian Orthodox 10% Armenian Apostolic 8% unknown 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.62% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.87 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.52 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.57 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 52.94 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Georgia - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 53 rayons (raionebi singular - raioni) 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi singular - k'alak'i) and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki singular - avtom respublika); Abashis Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi) Adigenis Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi) Akhalgoris Akhalk'alak'is Akhalts'ikhis Akhmetis Ambrolauris Aspindzis Baghdat'is Bolnisis Borjomis Chiat'ura* Ch'khorotsqus Ch'okhatauris Dedop'listsqaros Dmanisis Dushet'is Gardabanis Gori* Goris Gurjaanis Javis K'arelis Kaspis Kharagaulis Khashuris Khobis Khonis K'ut'aisi* Lagodekhis Lanch'khut'is Lentekhis Marneulis Martvilis Mestiis Mts'khet'is Ninotsmindis Onis Ozurget'is P'ot'i* Qazbegis Qvarlis Rust'avi* Sach'kheris Sagarejos Samtrediis Senakis Sighnaghis T'bilisi* T'elavis T'erjolis T'et'ritsqaros T'ianet'is Tqibuli* Ts'ageris Tsalenjikhis Tsalkis Tsqaltubo* Vanis Zestap'onis Zugdidi* Zugdidis

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Eduard SHEVARDNADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE chairman]; Greens Party [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi Topadze]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; National Independent Party or NIP [Irakli TSERETELI chairman]; People's Party [Mamuka GIORGADZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Vakhtang RCHEULISHVILI]; Union for 'Revival' Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Union of Traditionalists or UGT [Akaki ASATIANI]; United Republican Party or URP [Nodar NATADZE chairman]

International organization participation: BSEC CCC CE CE (guest) CIS EAPC EBRD ECE FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Georgia: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top white below

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Georgia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits tea and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing wine metals machinery chemicals and textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife Georgia with the help of the IMF and World Bank made substantial economic gains since 1995 increasing GDP growth and slashing inflation. The Georgian economy continues to experience large budget deficits due to a failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also still suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the distribution network in 1998 and deliveries are steadily improving. Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery on the development of an international transportation corridor through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The growing trade deficit continuing problems with tax evasion and corruption and political uncertainties cloud the short-term economic picture. However revived investment could spur higher economic growth in 2000 perhaps up to 6%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: citrus grapes tea vegetables potatoes; livestock

Industries: steel aircraft machine tools electric locomotives trucks tractors textiles shoes chemicals wood products wine

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 3.08 million (1997)
By occupation industry and construction: 20%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 40%
By occupation services: 40% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 14.5% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 19% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $330 million (1999 est.)
Commodities: citrus fruits tea wine other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery and metals; chemicals; fuel reexports; textiles
Partners: Russia 27% Turkey 20% Azerbaijan 10% Armenia 8% (1997)

Imports: $840 million (1999 est.)
Commodities: fuel grain and other foods machinery and parts transport equipment
Partners: EU 22% Russia 15% Turkey 12% Azerbaijan 12% US 7% (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.8 billion (1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lari per US$1 (end of period) - 1.9503 (December 1999) 2.0245 (1999) 1.3898 (1998) 1.2975 (1997) 1.2628 (1996) 1.24 (December 1995)


Georgia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.96 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 6.123 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 700 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 350 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Georgia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 150 (1995)

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Georgia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $27 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Georgia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 28 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Georgia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia


Skytours


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