Lithuania 2000Lithuania

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Lithuania
Lithuania 

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Lithuania - Introduction 2000
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Background: Independent between the two World Wars Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. In March of 1990 Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual integration into Western European institutions.


Lithuania - Geography 2000
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Location: Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N 24 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims

Climate: transitional between maritime and continental; wet moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland many scattered small lakes fertile soil

Elevation

Natural resources: peat arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 430 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography


Lithuania - People 2000
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Population: 3,620,756 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.29% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6% Russian 8.7% Polish 7% Byelorussian 1.6% other 2.1%

Languages: Lithuanian (official) Polish Russian

Religions: Roman Catholic (primarily) Lutheran Russian Orthodox Protestant evangelical Christian Baptist Muslim Jewish

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.29% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.77 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.87 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.16 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14.67 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Lithuania - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai singular - rajonas) and 11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas Alytaus Rajonas Alytus* Anyksciu Rajonas Birstonas* Birzu Rajonas Druskininkai* Ignalinos Rajonas Jonavos Rajonas Joniskio Rajonas Jurbarko Rajonas Kaisiadoriu Rajonas Kaunas* Kauno Rajonas Kedainiu Rajonas Kelmes Rajonas Klaipeda* Klaipedos Rajonas Kretingos Rajonas Kupiskio Rajonas Lazdiju Rajonas Marijampole* Marijampoles Rajonas Mazeikiu Rajonas Moletu Rajonas Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas Palanga* Panevezio Rajonas Panevezys* Pasvalio Rajonas Plunges Rajonas Prienu Rajonas Radviliskio Rajonas Raseiniu Rajonas Rokiskio Rajonas Sakiu Rajonas Salcininku Rajonas Siauliai* Siauliu Rajonas Silales Rajonas Silutes Rajonas Sirvintu Rajonas Skuodo Rajonas Svencioniu Rajonas Taurages Rajonas Telsiu Rajonas Traku Rajonas Ukmerges Rajonas Utenos Rajonas Varenos Rajonas Vilkaviskio Rajonas Vilniaus Rajonas Vilnius* Zarasu Rajonas

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Statehood Day 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats 71 members are directly elected by popular vote 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Parliament; Court of Appeal judges appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Algirdas SAUDARGAS chairman]; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania or LDDP [Ceslovas JURSENAS chairman]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie WURTH-POLFER president]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Romualdas OZOLAS chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP (previously Farmers' Union) [Albinas VAIZMUZIS chairman]; Lithuanian Nationalist Union or LTS [Rimantas SMETONA chairman]; Lithuanian Polish Union or LLS [Rsztardas MACIEKIANIEC chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Aloyzas SAKALAS chairman]

International organization participation: BIS CBSS CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC IOM ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNMIBH UNMIK UPU WEU (associate partner) WHO WIPO WMO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Lithuania: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) green and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Lithuania - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Lithuania the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia faced its own economic and financial crisis in 1999 as a result of the government's wrongfooted economic policies and its inadequate response to the August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Preliminary figures indicate 3% negative GDP growth 10% unemployment - the highest level since independence in 1991 - and a budget deficit estimated at between 8 and 9% of GDP. The policies that Prime Minister KUBILIUS implemented upon taking the helm in November 1999 underscore a commitment to fiscal restraint economic stabilization and accelerated reforms. The austere 2000 budget in based on a 2% GDP growth forecast 3% inflation and a 2.8% budget deficit. Lithuania was invited at the Helsinki EU summit in December 1999 to begin EU accession talks in early 2000. Privatization of the large state-owned utilities particularly in the energy sector and reducing the high current account deficit remain challenges for the coming year.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -3% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: grain potatoes sugar beets flax vegetables; beef milk eggs; fish

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools electric motors television sets refrigerators and freezers petroleum refining shipbuilding (small ships) furniture making textiles food processing fertilizers agricultural machinery optical equipment electronic components computers amber

Industrial production growth rate: -14% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.8 million
By occupation industry: 30%
By occupation agriculture: 20%
By occupation services: 50% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1999)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.3% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 19% mineral products 19% textiles and clothing 19% chemicals 10% foodstuffs (1998)
Partners: Russia 17.4% Germany 15.8% Latvia 12.7% Denmark 5.9% Belarus 5.2% (1999)

Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 30% mineral products 16% chemicals 9% textiles and clothing 9% foodstuffs (1998)
Partners: Russia 20.4% Germany 16.5% Denmark 3.8% Belarus 2.2% Latvia 2% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $N/A

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: litai per US$1 - 4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994)


Lithuania - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 15.58 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 7.829 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 7 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 340 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Lithuania - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 297,500 (1998)

Telephone system: inadequate but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Lithuania - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $181 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Lithuania - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 96 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Lithuania - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: ongoing talks over maritime boundary dispute with Latvia (primary concern is oil exploration rights); 1997 border agreement with Russia not yet ratified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia Latin America and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia


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