Luxembourg 2000Luxembourg

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Luxembourg
Luxembourg 

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Luxembourg - Introduction 2000
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Background: Founded in 963 Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957 Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.


Luxembourg - Geography 2000
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Location: Western Europe between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N 6 10 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: modified continental with mild winters cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited) arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 10 km² (including Belgium) (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: landlocked


Luxembourg - People 2000
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Population: 437,389 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend) Portuguese Italian and European (guest and worker residents)

Languages: Luxembourgian German French English

Religions: Roman Catholic 97% Protestant and Jewish 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.45 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.91 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.21 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.83 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Luxembourg - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch Grevenmacher Luxembourg

Dependent areas

Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day 23 June (1921) (public celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday)

Constitution: 17 October 1868 occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice or Cour Superieure de Justice judges are appointed for life by the monarch; Administrative Court or Tribunale Administratin judges are appointed for life by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Jean HUSS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [Andre HOFFMAN]; other minor parties

International organization participation: ACCT Australia Group Benelux CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EIB EMU EU FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NATO NEA NSG OECD OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WEU WHO WIPO WMO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Luxembourg: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Luxembourg - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The stable high-income economy features moderate growth low inflation and low unemployment. The industrial sector until recently dominated by steel has become increasingly more diversified to include chemicals rubber and other products. During the past decades growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services especially banking account for a growing proportion of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands and as a member of the EU enjoys the advantages of the open European market. It joined with 10 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: barley oats potatoes wheat fruits wine grapes; livestock products

Industries: banking iron and steel food processing chemicals metal products engineering tires glass aluminum

Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 236,400 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers mostly from Portugal Italy France Belgium and Germany) (1998 est.)
By occupation services: 83.2%
By occupation industry: 14.3%
By occupation agriculture: 2.5% (1998 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.1% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.5 billion (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: finished steel products chemicals rubber products glass aluminum other industrial products
Partners: Germany 33% France 20% Belgium 12% UK 6% US 5% Netherlands 4% (1998)

Imports: $9.6 billion (c.i.f. 1998)
Commodities: minerals metals foodstuffs quality consumer goods
Partners: Belgium 36% Germany 27% France 12% Netherlands 5% US 4% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $N/A

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000) 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 34.77 (January 1999) 36.299 (1998) 35.774 (1997) 30.962 (1996) 29.480 (1995); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc which circulates freely in Luxembourg


Luxembourg - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 382 million kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 5.856 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 900 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 6.4 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Luxembourg - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 95,400 (1999)

Telephone system: highly developed completely automated and efficient system mainly buried cables

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Luxembourg - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $131 million (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Luxembourg - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 37 km; Moselle

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Luxembourg - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Trusted Tours


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