Mozambique 2000Mozambique

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Mozambique
Mozambique 

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Mozambique - Introduction 2000
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Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites economic dependence on South Africa a severe drought and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989 and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.


Mozambique - Geography 2000
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Location: Southern Africa bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S 35 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands uplands in center high plateaus in northwest mountains in west

Elevation

Natural resources: coal titanium natural gas hydropower
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 1180 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones

Geography


Mozambique - People 2000
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Population: 19,104,696
Growth rate: 1.47% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan Chokwe Manyika Sena Makua and others) Europeans 0.06% Euro-Africans 0.2% Indians 0.08%

Languages: Portuguese (official) indigenous dialects

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50% Christian 30% Muslim 20%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 37.99 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 23.29 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 139.86 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 4.93 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mozambique - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado Gaza Inhambane Manica Maputo Nampula Niassa Sofala Tete Zambezia

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and judges elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO chairman]; Mozambique National Resistance - Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana - Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA president]

International organization participation: ACP AfDB C CCC ECA FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU NAM OAU OIC SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNTAET UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mozambique: three equal horizontal bands of green (top) black and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mozambique - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Before the peace accord of October 1992 Mozambique's economy was devastated by a protracted civil war and socialist mismanagement. In 1994 it ranked as one of the poorest countries in the world. Since then Mozambique has undertaken a series of economic reforms. Almost all aspects of the economy have been liberalized to some extent. More than 900 state enterprises have been privatized. Pending are tax and much needed commercial code reform as well as greater private sector involvement in the transportation telecommunications and energy sectors. Since 1996 inflation has been low and foreign exchange rates stable. Albeit from a small base Mozambique's economy grew at an annual 10% rate in 1997-99 one of the highest growth rates in the world. Still the country depends on foreign assistance to balance the budget and to pay for a trade imbalance in which imports outnumber exports by five to one or more. The medium-term outlook for the country looks bright as trade and transportation links to South Africa and the rest of the region are expected to improve and sizable foreign investments materialize. Among these investments are metal production (aluminum steel) natural gas power generation agriculture (cotton sugar) fishing timber and transportation services. Additional exports in these areas should bring in needed foreign exchange. In addition Mozambique is on track to receive a formal cancellation of a large portion of its external debt through a World Bank initiative.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 10% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton cashew nuts sugarcane tea cassava (tapioca) corn rice tropical fruits; beef poultry

Industries: food beverages chemicals (fertilizer soap paints) petroleum products textiles cement glass asbestos tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 39% (1997)

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 81%
By occupation industry: 6%
By occupation services: 13% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 4% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $300 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: prawns 40% cashews cotton sugar copra citrus coconuts timber (1997)
Partners: Spain 17% South Africa 16% Portugal 12% US 10% Japan Malawi India Zimbabwe (1996 est.)

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f. 1999 est.)
Commodities: food clothing farm equipment petroleum transport equipment (1997)
Partners: South Africa 55% Zimbabwe 7% Saudi Arabia 5% Portugal 4% US Japan India (1996 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.8 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 13,392 (January 2000) 12,775 (1999) 11,875 (1998) 11.543.6 (1997) 11,294 (1996) 9,024 (1995)


Mozambique - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.2 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 1.018 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 483 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 385 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mozambique - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: fair system of tropospheric scatter open-wire lines and microwave radio relay

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mozambique - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $72 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 4.7% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mozambique - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 170 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mozambique - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Southern African transit hub for South American cocaine probably destined for the European and US markets; producer of hashish and methaqualone


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