Romania 2000Romania

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Romania
Romania 

Crystal Travel


Romania - Introduction 2000
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU.


Romania - Geography 2000
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Location: Southeastern Europe bordering the Black Sea between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N 25 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate; cold cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining) timber natural gas coal iron ore salt arable land: hydro power
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 31,020 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography
Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans Moldova and Ukraine


Romania - People 2000
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Population: 22,411,121 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.21% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 21.5% (1994 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5% Hungarian 7.1% Roma 1.8% German 0.5% Ukrainian 0.3% other 0.8% (1992)

Languages: Romanian Hungarian German

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70% Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate) Protestant 6% unaffiliated 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.76 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.29 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19.84 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Romania - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba Arad Arges Bacau Bihor Bistrita-Nasaud Botosani Braila Brasov Bucuresti* Buzau Calarasi Caras-Severin Cluj Constanta Covasna Dimbovita Dolj Galati Gorj Giurgiu Harghita Hunedoara Ialomita Iasi Maramures Mehedinti Mures Neamt Olt Prahova Salaj Satu Mare Sibiu Suceava Teleorman Timis Tulcea Vaslui Vilcea Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Mihai BERCA]; Alliance Party for Romania or APR [Tedor MELESCANU]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Alexamdru ATHANASIU]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie VERDET]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]

International organization participation: ACCT BIS BSEC CCC CE CEI EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO G- 9 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU LAIA (observer) MONUC NAM (guest) NSG OAS (observer) OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UPU WCL WEU (associate partner) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side) yellow and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Romania - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: After the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91 Romania was left with an obsolete industrial base and a pattern of industrial capacity wholly unsuited to its needs. In February 1997 Romania embarked on a comprehensive macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform program but reform subsequently has been a frustrating stop-and-go process. Restructuring programs include liquidating large energy-intensive industries and major agricultural and financial sector reforms. In 1999 Romania's economy contracted for a third straight year - by an estimated 4.8%. Romania reached an agreement with the IMF in August for a $547 million loan but release of the second tranche was postponed in October because of unresolved private sector lending requirements and differences over budgetary spending. Bucharest avoided defaulting on mid-year lump-sum debt payments but had to significantly draw down reserves to do so; reserves rebounded to an estimated $1.5 billion by yearend 1999. The government's priorities include: obtaining renewed IMF lending tightening fiscal policy accelerating privatization and restructuring unprofitable firms. Romania was invited by the EU in December 1999 to begin accession negotiations.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -4.8% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wheat corn sugar beets sunflower seed potatoes grapes; milk eggs beef

Industries: mining timber construction materials metallurgy chemicals machine building food processing petroleum production and refining

Industrial production growth rate: -8.7% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.6 million (1998 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 36.5%
By occupation industry: 34.4%
By occupation services: 29.1% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 21.5% (1994 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 44% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: textiles and footwear 33.4% metals and metal products 19.1% machinery and equipment 9.5% minerals and fuels 6.1% (1998)
Partners: Italy 22% Germany 19.6% France 5.9% US 3.8% (1998)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 23% fuels and minerals 14.2% chemicals 8.7% textiles and footwear 17.1% (1998)
Partners: Germany 17.5% Italy 17.4% France 6.9% US 4.2% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 17,996 (December 1999) 15,333 (1999) 8,876 (1998) 7,168 (1997) 3,084 (1996) 2,033 (1995)


Romania - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 52.495 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 49.552 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 537 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 1.269 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Romania - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 52,000 (1999)

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Romania - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $650 million (FY96)
Percent of gdp: 2.5% (FY96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Romania - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 62 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1724 km (1984)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Romania - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: dispute with Ukraine over continental shelf of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may exist; agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period after which either party can refer dispute to the ICJ

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe


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