São Tomé and Príncipe 2000São%20Tomé%20and%20Príncipe

 São Tomé and Príncipe | | | | | |
| | | :  |

São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe 


São Tomé and Príncipe - Introduction 2000
top of page

Background: Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975 democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.

São Tomé and Príncipe - Geography 2000
top of page

Location: Western Africa islands in the Gulf of Guinea straddling the Equator west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N 7 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Comparative: more than five times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

Climate: tropical; hot humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic mountainous


Natural resources: fish hydropower
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 100 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


São Tomé and Príncipe - People 2000
top of page

Population: 159,883 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 3.16% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: mestico angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves) forros (descendants of freed slaves) servicais (contract laborers from Angola Mozambique and Cape Verde) tongas (children of servicais born on the islands) Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Religions: Christian 80% (Roman Catholic Evangelical Protestant Seventh-Day Adventist)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.98 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.76 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.62 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 50.41 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

São Tomé and Príncipe - Government 2000
top of page

Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces; Principe Sao Tome

Dependent areas

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are appointed by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Front or FDC [Alphonse Dos SANTOS]; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Armindo AGUIAR secretary general]; other small parties

International organization participation: ACCT ACP AfDB CEEAC ECA FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IFAD IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ITU NAM OAU UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA located at 122 East 42nd Street Suite 1604 New York NY 10,168 telephone [1] (212) 317-0533
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

Flag descriptionflag of São%20Tomé%20and%20Príncipe: three horizontal bands of green (top) yellow (double width) and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

São Tomé and Príncipe - Economy 2000
top of page

Economy overview: This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 25 years ago. However cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels most manufactured goods consumer goods and a significant amount of food. Over the years it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies but economic growth has remained sluggish. Sao Tome is also optimistic that significant petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cocoa coconuts palm kernels copra cinnamon pepper coffee bananas papayas beans; poultry; fish

Industries: light construction textiles soap beer; fish processing; timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: NA
By occupation: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% in the formal business sector (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 10.5% (yearend 1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.9 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: cocoa 90% copra coffee palm oil (1997)
Partners: Netherlands 51% Germany 6% Portugal 6% (1997)

Imports: $19.5 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and electrical equipment food products petroleum products
Partners: Portugal 26% France 18% Angola Belgium Japan (1997)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $274 million (1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1 - 7,200 (October 1999) 7,104 (1998) 4,553 (1997) 2,203 (1996) 1420.3 (1995)

São Tomé and Príncipe - Energy 2000
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

São Tomé and Príncipe - Communication 2000
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

São Tomé and Príncipe - Military 2000
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1 million (FY94)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

São Tomé and Príncipe - Transportation 2000
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

São Tomé and Príncipe - Transnational issues 2000
top of page

Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Qatar Airways

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it