Statistical information Antarctica 2000Antarctica

Map of Antarctica | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Antarctica in the World
Antarctica in the World

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Antarctica - Introduction 2000
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Background: Speculation over the existence of a 'southern land' was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Peninsula region and areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1838 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Various 'firsts' were achieved in the early 20th century including: 1902 first balloon flight (by British explorer Robert Falcon SCOTT); 1912 first to the South Pole (five Norwegian explorers under Roald AMUNDSEN); 1928 first fixed-wing aircraft flight (by Australian adventurer/explorer Sir Hubert WILKINS); 1929 first flight over the South Pole (by Americans Richard BYRD and Bernt BALCHEN); and 1935 first transantarctic flight (American Lincoln ELLSWORTH). Following World War II there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959 it entered into force in 1961.


Antarctica - Geography 2000
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Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S 0 00 E

Map referenceAntarctic Region

Area
Comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none but see the Disputes - international entry

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude elevation and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock with average elevations between 2000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 5,140 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land Wilkes Land the Antarctic Peninsula area and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore chromium copper gold nickel platinum and other minerals and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 0 km² (1993)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Geography
Note: the coldest windiest highest (on average) and driest continent; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable


Antarctica - People 2000
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Population: no indigenous inhabitants but there are seasonally staffed research stations

Nationality

Ethnic groups

Languages

Religions

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate

Death rate

Net migration rate

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: in 1998 NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Antarctica - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961 establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings - the 23rd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Peru in May 1999. At the end of 1999 there were 44 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 17 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium Brazil (1983) Bulgaria (1998) China (1985) Ecuador (1990) Finland (1989) Germany (1981) India (1983) Italy (1987) Japan South Korea (1989) Netherlands (1990) Peru (1989) Poland (1977) Russia South Africa Spain (1988) Sweden (1988) Uruguay (1985) and the US. Acceding (nonvoting) members with year of accession in parentheses are - Austria (1987) Canada (1988) Colombia (1988) Cuba (1984) Czech Republic (1993) Denmark (1965) Greece (1987) Guatemala (1991) Hungary (1984) North Korea (1987) Papua New Guinea (1981) Romania (1971) Slovakia (1993) Switzerland (1990) Turkey (1995) Ukraine (1992) and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity such as weapons testing is prohibited but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize dispute or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access including aerial observation to any area and may inspect all stations installations and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or ultimately by the ICJ; Articles 12 13 14 - deal with upholding interpreting and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution fauna and flora environmental impact assessments waste management and protected areas; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.

Capital

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas

Independence

National holiday

Constitution

Legal system: US law including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals such as murder may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example the Antarctic Conservation Act 16 U.S.C. section 2,401 et seq. provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury Commerce Transportation and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541 the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify in advance the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs Room 5,801 Department of State Washington DC 20,520 which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office Office of Polar Programs National Science Foundation Arlington Virginia 22,230; telephone: (703) 306-1031 or see their website at www.nsf.gov.

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage

Executive branch

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Antarctica

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Antarctica - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: No economic activity is conducted at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism both based abroad. Antarctic fisheries in 1998-99 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 119,898 metric tons. Unregulated fishing landed five to six times more than the regulated fishery and allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. A total of 10,013 tourists visited in the 1998-99 summer up from the 9,604 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 16 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made 116 trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products

Industries

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports

Imports

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Antarctica - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Antarctica - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Antarctica - Military 2000
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Antarctica - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 18

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Antarctica - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina Australia Chile France (Adelie Land) New Zealand (Ross Dependency) Norway (Queen Maud Land) and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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