Statistical information Australia 2000Australia

Map of Australia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Australia in the World

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Australia - Introduction 2000
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Background: Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution particularly depletion of the ozone layer and management and conservation of coastal areas especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an independent republic was defeated in 1999.


Australia - Geography 2000
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Location: Oceania continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S 133 00 E

Map referenceOceania

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite coal iron ore copper tin silver uranium nickel tungsten mineral sands lead zinc diamonds natural gas petroleum
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 21,070 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Geography
Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular tropical invigorating sea breeze known as 'the Doctor' occurs along the west coast in the summer


Australia - People 2000
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Population: 19,169,083 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92% Asian 7% aboriginal and other 1%

Languages: English native languages

Religions: Anglican 26.1% Roman Catholic 26% other Christian 24.3% non-Christian 11%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.08 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.12 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.26 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing industrial development urbanization and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast the largest coral reef in the world is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.04 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Australia - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: democratic federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory* New South Wales Northern Territory* Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia

Dependent areas: (6) Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives)

Judicial branch: High Court the Chief Justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Australian Democratic Party [Meg LEES]; Australian Labor Party [Kim BEAZLEY]; Green Party [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; National Party [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Pauline HANSON]

International organization participation: ANZUS APEC AsDB Australia Group BIS C CCC CP EBRD ESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM (guest) NEA NSG OECD OPCW PCA Sparteca SPC SPF UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNITAR UNTAET UNTSO UNU UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Australia: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger seven-pointed stars

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Australia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy with a per capita GDP at the level of the four dominant West European economies. Rich in natural resources Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products minerals metals and fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value of total exports so that a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods but competition in international markets continues to be severe. While Australia has suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early 1990s and during the recent financial problems in East Asia the economy has expanded at a solid 4% annual growth pace in the last five years. Canberra's emphasis on reforms is a key factor behind the economy's resilience to the regional crisis and its stronger than expected growth rate. Growth in 2000 will depend on key international commodity prices the extent of recovery in nearby Asian economies and the strength of US and European markets.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.3% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wheat barley sugarcane fruits; cattle sheep poultry

Industries: mining industrial and transportation equipment food processing chemicals steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 8.9 million (December 1999)
By occupation services: 73%
By occupation industry: 22%
By occupation agriculture: 5% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1999)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.8% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $58 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: coal gold meat wool alumina iron ore wheat machinery and transport equipment
Partners: Japan 20% EU 14% ASEAN 11% US 10% South Korea NZ Taiwan Hong Kong China (1998)

Imports: $67 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment computers and office machines telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Partners: EU 24% US 22% Japan 14% ASEAN 12% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $222 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.52068 (January 2000) 1.5497 (1999) 1.5888 (1998) 1.3439 (1997) 1.2773 (1996) 1.3486 (1995)


Australia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 186.387 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 173.34 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Australia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 5.29 million (1998)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Australia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.9 billion (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Australia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 408 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small shallow-draft craft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Australia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


Volotea Air


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