Statistical information Bhutan 2000Bhutan

Map of Bhutan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bhutan in the World
Bhutan in the World


Bhutan - Introduction 2000
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Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949 with India subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid.

Bhutan - Geography 2000
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Location: Southern Asia between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N 90 30 E

Map referenceAsia

Comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna


Natural resources: timber hydropower gypsum calcium carbide
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 340 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Bhutan - People 2000
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Population: 2,005,222
Growth rate: 2.19% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: Bhote 50% ethnic Nepalese 35% indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Languages: Dzongkha (official) Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75% Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.19% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 36.22 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.32 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 110.99 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 5.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bhutan - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag singular and plural); Bumthang Chhukha Chirang Daga Geylegphug Ha Lhuntshi Mongar Paro Pemagatsel Punakha Samchi Samdrup Jongkhar Shemgang Tashigang Thimphu Tongsa Wangdi Phodrang

Dependent areas

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies 10 represent religious bodies and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the monarch; High Court judges appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties


Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza 27th Floor New York NY 10,017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
From the us: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag descriptionflag of Bhutan: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bhutan - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The economy one of the world's smallest and least developed is based on agriculture and forestry which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is technologically backward with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects such as road construction rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education social and environment programs in Bhutan are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing trade labor and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: rice corn root crops citrus foodgrains; dairy products eggs

Industries: cement wood products processed fruits alcoholic beverages calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 93%
By occupation services: 5%
By occupation industry and commerce: 2%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9% (1998)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $111 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: cardamom gypsum timber handicrafts cement fruit electricity (to India) precious stones spices
Partners: India 94% Bangladesh

Imports: $136 million (c.i.f. 1998)
Commodities: fuel and lubricants grain machinery and parts vehicles fabrics rice
Partners: India 77% Japan UK Germany US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $120 million (1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 43.552 (January 2000) 43.055 (1999) 41.259 (1998) 36.313 (1997) 35.433 (1996) 32.427 (1995); note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Bhutan - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.788 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 345 million kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 1.339 billion kWh

Electricity imports: 21 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bhutan - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bhutan - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $N/A
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bhutan - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Bhutan - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: over approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees in Nepal

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Crystal Travel

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