Statistical information Brazil 2000Brazil

Map of Brazil | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Brazil in the World
Brazil in the World

Undercover Tourist


Brazil - Introduction 2000
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Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.


Brazil - Geography 2000
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Location: Eastern South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S 55 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims

Climate: mostly tropical but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains hills mountains and narrow coastal belt

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite gold iron ore manganese nickel phosphates platinum tin uranium petroleum hydropower timber
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 28,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Geography
Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador


Brazil - People 2000
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Population: 172,860,370
Growth rate: 0.94% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese German Italian Spanish Polish) 55% mixed white and black 38% black 6% other (includes Japanese Arab Amerindian) 1%

Languages: Portuguese (official) Spanish English French

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.37 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 38.04 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Brazil - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre Alagoas Amapa Amazonas Bahia Ceara Distrito Federal* Espirito Santo Goias Maranhao Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Minas Gerais Para Paraiba Parana Pernambuco Piaui Rio de Janeiro Rio Grande do Norte Rio Grande do Sul Rondonia Roraima Santa Catarina Sao Paulo Sergipe Tocantins

Dependent areas

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four year period two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal 11 judges are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Jader BARBALHO president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Teotinho VILELA Filho president]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo MALUF president]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN president]; Liberal Party or PL [Valdemar COSTA Neto president]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU president]

International organization participation: AfDB BIS CCC ECLAC FAO G-11 G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU LAES LAIA Mercosur NAM (observer) NSG OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMOP UNTAET UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Brazil: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Brazil - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural mining manufacturing and service sectors Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. In the late eighties and early nineties high inflation hindered economic activity and investment. The Real Plan instituted in the spring of 1994 sought to break inflationary expectations by pegging the real to the US dollar. Inflation was brought down to single digit annual figures but not fast enough to avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation during the transition phase of the Real Plan. This appreciation meant that Brazilian goods were now more expensive relative to goods from other countries which contributed to large current account deficits. However no shortage of foreign currency ensued because of the financial community's renewed interest in Brazilian markets as inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis of the eighties faded from memory. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999 the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 that investors had expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998. Brazil's debt to GDP ratio of 48% for 1999 beat the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil will maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with a floating currency. The economy is expected to push growth up to 3% in 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.8% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: coffee soybeans wheat rice corn sugarcane cocoa citrus; beef

Industries: textiles shoes chemicals cement lumber iron ore tin steel aircraft motor vehicles and parts other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: -2.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 74 million (1997 est.)
By occupation services: 42%
By occupation agriculture: 31%
By occupation industry: 27%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 5% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $46.9 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: manufactures iron ore soybeans footwear coffee
Partners: US 18% Argentina 13% Germany 5% Netherlands 5% Japan 4% (1999)

Imports: $48.7 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemical products oil electricity
Partners: US 23% Argentina 12% Germany 10% Japan 5% Italy 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $200 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: reals (R$) per US$1 - 1.804 (January 2000) 1.815 (1999) 1.161 (1998) 1.078 (1997) 1.005 (1996) 0.918 (1995)


Brazil - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 316.927 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 336.242 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 41.5 billion kWh

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Brazil - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4 million (1997)

Telephone system: good working system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Brazil - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Brazil - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3,277 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural gas 4,246 km (1998)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Brazil - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region mostly used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; increasingly used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling


Turbopass


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