Statistical information Canada 2000Canada

Map of Canada | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Canada in the World

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Canada - Introduction 2000
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec with its French-speaking residents and unique culture to the remainder of the country.


Canada - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern North America bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N 95 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore nickel zinc copper gold lead molybdenum potash silver fish timber wildlife coal petroleum natural gas hydropower
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 7,100 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic Pacific and North American interior and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Geography
Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada border


Canada - People 2000
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Population: 31,281,092 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28% French origin 23% other European 15% Amerindian 2% other mostly Asian African Arab 6% mixed background 26%

Languages: English 59.3% (official) French 23.2% (official) other 17.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42% Protestant 40% other 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.41 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.2 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural industrial mining and forestry activities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.08 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Canada - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland Northwest Territories* Nova Scotia Nunavut* Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law except in Quebec where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Joe CLARK]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]

International organization participation: ABEDA ACCT AfDB APEC AsDB Australia Group BIS C CCC CDB (non-regional) CE (observer) EAPC EBRD ECE ECLAC ESA (cooperating state) FAO G- 7 G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURCA MINURSO MIPONUH MONUC NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS OECD OPCW OSCE PCA UN UN Security Council (temporary) UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNTAET UNTSO UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: three vertical bands of red (hoist side) white (double width square) and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Canada - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: As an affluent high-tech industrial society Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system pattern of production and high living standards. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing mining and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment is falling and government budget surpluses are being partially devoted to reducing the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) have touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. With its great natural resources skilled labor force and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas which has been raising the possibility of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professional persons lured by higher pay lower taxes and the immense high-tech infrastructure.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wheat barley oilseed tobacco fruits vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals food products wood and paper products transportation equipment chemicals fish products petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15.9 million (1999)
By occupation: services 75% manufacturing 16% construction 5% agriculture 3% other 1% (1997)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.6% (1999)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.7% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $277 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: motor vehicles and parts newsprint wood pulp timber crude petroleum machinery natural gas aluminum telecommunications equipment electricity
Partners: US 84% Japan 3% UK Germany South Korea Netherlands China (1998)

Imports: $259.3 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment crude oil chemicals motor vehicles and parts durable consumer goods electricity
Partners: US 77% Japan 3% UK Germany France Mexico Taiwan South Korea (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $253 billion (1996)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4489 (January 2000) 1.4857 (1999) 1.4835 (1998) 1.3846 (1997) 1.3635 (1996) 1.3724 (1995)


Canada - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 550.852 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 484.515 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 39.502 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 11.725 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Canada - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 3 million (1999)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Canada - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $7.4 billion (FY97/98)
Percent of gdp: 1.2% (FY97/98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Canada - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1411 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 15 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,000 km including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Canada - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance Beaufort Sea Strait of Juan de Fuca Machias Seal Island)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market


Undercover Tourist


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