Statistical information Colombia 2000Colombia

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Colombia in the World
Colombia in the World

Crystal Travel

Colombia - Introduction 2000
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Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.

Colombia - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern South America bordering the Caribbean Sea between Panama and Venezuela and bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N 72 00 W

Map referenceSouth America Central America and the Caribbean

Total: 1,138,910 km²
Land: 1,038,700 km²
Water: 100,210 km²
Note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries
Total: 6,004 km
Border countries: (4) Brazil 1,643 km; , Ecuador 590 km; , Panama 225 km; , Peru 1,496 km; (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1760 km North Pacific Ocean 1448 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands central highlands high Andes Mountains eastern lowland plains

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
Extremes note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas coal iron ore nickel gold copper emeralds hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 39%
Forests and woodland: 48%
Other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

Colombia - People 2000
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Population: 40,349,388 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.64% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 55% (1999)

Noun: Colombian
Adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58% white 20% mulatto 14% black 4% mixed black-Amerindian 3% Amerindian 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 31.88% (male 6,507,282; female 6,354,454)
15-64 years: 63.37% (male 12,452,182; female 13,117,707)
65 years and over: 4.75% (male 859,967; female 1,057,796) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.64% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.41 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution especially in Bogota from vehicle emissions
International agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 23.96 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.57 years
Male: 66.71 years
Female: 74.55 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 71,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 1700 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 91.3%
Male: 91.2%
Female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Colombia - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
Conventional short form: Colombia
Local long form: Republica de Colombia
Local short form: Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas Antioquia Arauca Atlantico Bolivar Boyaca Caldas Caqueta Casanare Cauca Cesar Choco Cordoba Cundinamarca Guainia Guaviare Huila La Guajira Magdalena Meta Narino Norte de Santander Putumayo Quindio Risaralda San Andres y Providencia Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota* Santander Sucre Tolima Valle del Cauca Vaupes Vichada

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)
Election results: no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA elected president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected vice president; percent of vote - 50.3%

Legislative branch
Elections: Senate - last held 8 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2002); House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2002)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC 24%, smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by party - PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by party - PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11

Judicial branch: four coequal supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution rules on constitutionality of laws amendments to the constitution and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or PSC [Ciro RAMIREZ Anzon]; Liberal Party or PL [Luis Guillermo VELEZ]; Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
In the us chancery: 2,118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 387-8,338
In the us fax: [1] (202) 232-8,643
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC
In the us consulates: Atlanta
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
From the us embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3,831
From the us mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34,038
From the us telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
From the us fax: [57] (1) 315-2,197

Flag descriptionflag of Colombia: three horizontal bands of yellow (top double-width) blue and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Colombia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Colombia is poised for muted growth in the next several years marking continued recovery from the severe 1999 recession when GDP fell by about 4%. President PASTRANA's well-respected economic team is working to keep the economy on track maintaining low interest rates for example. In accordance with its IMF loan agreement the administration also is taking steps to improve the public sector's fiscal health. However many challenges to improved prosperity remain. Unemployment was stuck at a record 20% in 2000 contributing to the extreme inequality in income distribution. Two of Colombia's leading exports oil and coffee face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil production while coffee harvests and prices are depressed. The lack of public security is a key concern for investors making progress in the government's peace negotiations with insurgent groups an important driver of economic performance. Colombia is looking for continued support from the international community to boost economic and peace prospects.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 19%
Industry: 26%
Services: 55% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee cut flowers bananas rice tobacco corn sugarcane cocoa beans oilseed vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Industries: textiles food processing oil clothing and footwear beverages chemicals cement; gold coal emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 18.3 million (1999 est.)
By occupation services: 46%
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 24% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 55% (1999)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1%
Highest 10: 44% (1999)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $22 billion
Expenditures: $24 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $14.5 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: petroleum coffee coal apparel bananas cut flowers
Partners: US 50% EU 14% Andean Community of Nations 16% Japan 2% (2000 est.)

Imports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: industrial equipment transportation equipment consumer goods chemicals paper products fuels electricity
Partners: US 35% EU 16% Andean Community of Nations 15% Japan 5% (2000 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $34 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,241 (January 2000) 2,088 (2000) 1756.23 (1999) 1426.04 (1998) 1140.96 (1997) 1036.69 (1996)

Colombia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 43.574 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 22.27%
By source hydro: 76.19%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 1.54% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 40.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 27 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 35 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Colombia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern system in many respects
Domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities
International: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .co

Internet users: 600,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Colombia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $3 billion (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 3.4% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Colombia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1091 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 92
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 38
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 36
With paved runways under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 999
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 64
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 321
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 613 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 92
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2437 m: 38
914 to 1523 m: 36
Under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 999
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 64
914 to 1523 m: 321
Under 914 m: 613 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Total: 3,304 km
Standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
Narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not in use) (2000)


Waterways: 18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)

Merchant marine
Total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,322 GRT/69,444 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 4, container 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Colombia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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