Statistical information Egypt 2000Egypt

Map of Egypt | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Egypt in the World
Egypt in the World

Travelex


Egypt - Introduction 2000
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Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922 Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world) will continue to stress Egyptian society and overtax resources as the country enters the new millennium.


Egypt - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims

Climate: desert; hot dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore phosphates manganese limestone gypsum talc asbestos lead zinc
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 32,460 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes flash floods landslides volcanic activity; hot driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms sandstorms

Geography
Note: controls Sinai Peninsula only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics


Egypt - People 2000
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Population: 68,359,979 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.72% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians Bedouins and Berbers) 99% Greek Nubian Armenian other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Languages: Arabic (official) English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% Coptic Christian and other 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.72% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.38 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.83 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs beaches and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides raw sewage and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 62.32 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 3.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Egypt - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah Al Bahr al Ahmar Al Buhayrah Al Fayyum Al Gharbiyah Al Iskandariyah Al Isma'iliyah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Minya Al Qahirah Al Qalyubiyah Al Wadi al Jadid Ash Sharqiyah As Suways Aswan Asyut Bani Suwayf Bur Sa'id Dumyat Janub Sina' Kafr ash Shaykh Matruh Qina Shamal Sina' Suhaj

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law Islamic law and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Green Party [Kamal KIRAH]; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party) [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK leader] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or NPUG [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN]; Social Justice Party [Muhammad 'ABDAL-'AL]; Socialist Labor Party or SLP [Ibrahim SHUKRI]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [Mustafa Kamal MURAD]; Umma Party [Ahmad al-SABAHI]

International organization participation: ABEDA ACC ACCT (associate) AfDB AFESD AL AMF BSEC (observer) CAEU CCC EBRD ECA ESCWA FAO G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURSO MONUC NAM OAPEC OAS (observer) OAU OIC OSCE (partner) PCA UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNITAR UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNOMIG UNRWA UNTAET UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Egypt: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Egypt - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: A series of IMF arrangements - coupled with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance during the 1990s. Through sound fiscal and monetary policies Cairo tamed inflation slashed budget deficits and built up foreign reserves. Although the pace of structural reforms - such as privatization and new business legislation - has been slower than the IMF envisioned Egypt's steps toward a more market-oriented economy have prompted increased foreign investment. Lower combined hard currency inflows - from tourism worker remittances oil revenues and Suez Canal tolls - in 1998 and the first half of 1999 resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic dollar shortages but external payments were not in crisis. Despite ample reserves the Central Bank did not provide sufficient hard currency to commercial banks and Cairo restricted imports for a short period; these developments confirmed to some investors and currency traders that government financial operations lack sufficient coordination and openness. Monetary pressures have since eased however with the continued oil price recovery starting in mid-1999 and a moderate rebound in tourism. Increased gas exports are a major plus factor in future growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton rice corn wheat beans fruits vegetables; cattle water buffalo sheep goats; fish

Industries: textiles food processing tourism chemicals petroleum construction cement metals

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 19 million (1999 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 40%
By occupation services: 38%
By occupation industry: 22% (1990 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.7% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: crude oil and petroleum products cotton textiles metal products chemicals
Partners: EU 47% US 14% Turkey 8% (1998)

Imports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment foodstuffs chemicals wood products fuels
Partners: EU 42% US 16% Japan 5% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US$1 - market rate - 3.4050 (January 2000) 3.4050 (1999) 3.3880 (1998) 3.3880 (1997) 3.3880 (1996) 3.3900 (1995)


Egypt - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 57.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 53.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Egypt - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; Internet access available

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Egypt - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)
Percent of gdp: 8.2% (FY95/96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Egypt - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 90 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile Lake Nasser Alexandria-Cairo Waterway and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal 193.5 km (including approaches) used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Egypt - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Egypt asserts its claim to the 'Hala'ib Triangle' a barren area of 20,580 km² under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe Africa and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers


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