Statistical information Estonia 2000Estonia

Map of Estonia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Estonia in the World
Estonia in the World


Estonia - Introduction 2000
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Background: After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994 Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

Estonia - Geography 2000
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Location: Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N 26 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims

Climate: maritime wet moderate winters cool summers

Terrain: marshy lowlands


Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite) peat phosphorite amber cambrian blue clay limestone dolomite arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 110 km² (1996 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring


Estonia - People 2000
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Population: 1,431,471 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.59% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 6.3% (1994 est.)


Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1% Russian 28.1% Ukrainian 2.5% Byelorussian 1.5% Finn 1% other 1.8% (1998)

Languages: Estonian (official) Russian Ukrainian English Finnish other

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran Russian Orthodox Estonian Orthodox Baptist Methodist Seventh-Day Adventist Roman Catholic Pentecostal Word of Life Jewish

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.59% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 8.45 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1400 natural and manmade lakes the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.92 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.19 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn) Hiiumaa (Kardla) Ida-Virumaa (Johvi) Jarvamaa (Paide) Jogevamaa (Jogeva) Laanemaa (Haapsalu) Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere) Parnumaa (Parnu) Polvamaa (Polva) Raplamaa (Rapla) Saaremaa (Kuessaare) Tartumaa (Tartu) Valgamaa (Valga) Viljandimaa (Viljandi) Vorumaa (Voru)

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: National Court chairman appointed by Parliament for life

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR chairman]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOVEL chairman]; Country People's Party [Arnold RUUTEL]; Moderates or M [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV chairman]

International organization participation: BIS CBSS CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNMIBH UNMIK UNTSO UPU WEU (associate partner) WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) black and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: In 1999 Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991 largely because of the impact of the August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Estonia joined the WTO in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and continued its EU accession talks. GDP is forecast to grow 4% in 2000. Privatization of energy telecommunications railways and other state-owned companies will continue in 2000. Estonia expects to complete its preparations for EU membership by the end of 2002.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: potatoes fruits vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Industries: oil shale shipbuilding phosphates electric motors excavators cement furniture clothing textiles paper shoes apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 785,500 (1999 est.)
By occupation industry: 20%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 11%
By occupation services: 69% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.7% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and appliances 19% wood products 15% textiles 13% food products 12% metals 10% chemical products 8% (1999)
Partners: Sweden 19.3% Finland 18.8% Russia 8.8% Latvia 8.8% Germany 7.3% US 2.5% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and appliances 26% foodstuffs 15% chemical products 10% metal products 9% textiles 8% (1999)
Partners: Finland 23% Russia 13.2% Sweden 10% Germany 9.1% US 4.7 (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $270 million (January 1996)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 15.417 (January 2000) 4.678 (1999) 14.075 (1998) 13.882 (1997) 12.034 (1996) 11.465 (1995); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Estonia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.742 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 7.58 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 700 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 150 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 246,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled subscriber requests

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $70 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.2% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)



Waterways: 320 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed or ratified as of 1 January 2000

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking


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