Statistical information Finland 2000Finland

Map of Finland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Finland in the World
Finland in the World

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Finland - Introduction 2000
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Background: Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by Russia from 1809 Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During World War II it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half century the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.


Finland - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N 26 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

Coastline: 1126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current Baltic Sea and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation

Natural resources: timber copper zinc iron ore silver
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 640 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain


Finland - People 2000
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Population: 5,167,486 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 0.17% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Finn 93% Swede 6% Lapp 0.11% Roma 0.12% Tatar 0.02%

Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official) Swedish 5.9% (official) small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89% Greek Orthodox 1% none 9% other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.8 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 3.82 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Finland - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit singular - laani); Aland Etela-Suomen Laani Ita-Suomen Laani Lansi-Suomen Laani Lappi Oulun Laani

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Ecological Party or EPV [Eugen PARKATTI]; Finnish Christian Union or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green Union [Satu HASSI]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Claes ANDERSSON]; Liberal People's Party or LKP [Pekka RYTILA]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Sauli NIINISTO]; Rural Party or SMP [Raimo VISTBACKA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [(Johan) Ole NORRBACK]; Young Finns [Risto PENTTILA]

International organization participation: AfDB AsDB Australia Group BIS CBSS CCC CE CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EIB EMU ESA EU FAO G- 9 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM (guest) NC NEA NIB NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOGIP UNMOP UNTSO UPU WEU (observer) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Finland: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Finland - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Finland has a highly industrialized largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK France Germany and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood metals engineering telecommunications and electronics industries. Trade is important with exports equaling more than one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals Finland depends on imports of raw materials energy and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry an important export earner provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. The economy has come back from the recession of 1990-92 which had been caused by economic overheating depressed foreign markets and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2000 will probably be at the same level as in 1999 enough to continue the decline in unemployment from its current high level.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cereals sugar beets potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Industries: metal products shipbuilding pulp and paper copper refining foodstuffs chemicals textiles clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1999)

Labor force: 2.533 million
By occupation public services: 32%
By occupation industry: 22%
By occupation commerce: 14%
By occupation finance insurance and business services: 10%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 8%
By occupation transport and communications: 8%
By occupation construction: 6%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $43 billion (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemicals metals; timber paper and pulp
Partners: EU 56% (Germany 12% UK 9% Sweden 9% France 5%) US 7% Russia 6% Japan (1998)

Imports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: foodstuffs petroleum and petroleum products chemicals transport equipment iron and steel machinery textile yarn and fabrics fodder grains
Partners: EU 60% (Germany 15% Sweden 12% UK 7%) US 8% Russia 7% Japan 6% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000) 0.9386 (1999); markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.3441 (1998) 5.1914 (1997) 4.5936 (1996) 4.3667 (1995)


Finland - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 75.299 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 79.278 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 300 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 9.55 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Finland - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2,162,574 (1997)

Telephone system: modern system with excellent service

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Finland - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.8 billion (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 2% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Finland - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 157 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Finland - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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